Judd’s Methods in Immunohematology, 3rd Edition

  • ID: 2374469
  • Book
  • Region: Global
  • 626 Pages
  • AABB
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This well-respected compilation has stood for many years as one of the most widely used references for serologic methods. Usable as a manual of standard operating procedures (SOPs) for blood centers, transfusion services and immunohematology reference laboratories, the third edition has been updated throughout to reflect current modifications to protocols and SOP formats after a base of routine methods. Topics include the detection, identification and investigation of antibodies; perinatal testing; ABO typing problems; reagent preparation and more.
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Editorial Comments
About the Authors
Section I Routine Tube Methods
I-A Typing for ABO and Rh
I-B Testing for Unexpected Antibodies: LISS Additive Procedure
I-C Crossmatching by LISS Antiglobulin
I-D Weak D Testing Procedure
Table I-D-1 Interpretation Recommendations for Direct and Indirect Tests
with Anti-D
I-E Crossmatching by Immediate-Spin
I-F Grading and Scoring Serologic Reactions
Table I-F-1 Grading Serologic Reactions
I-G Intralaboratory Competency Testing: IAT Reading and Grading Procedure
Section II Antibody Detection
II-A Testing by Albumin Addition/Layering
II-B Testing by Albumin Antiglobulin
II-C Testing by Enzyme Antiglobulin
II-D Testing by LIP Antiglobulin
II-E Testing by LISS Wash Antiglobulin
II-F Testing by LISS-Ficin Antiglobulin
II-G Testing by Polyethylene Glycol Antiglobulin
II-H Testing for Cold-Reactive Antibodies by Direct Agglutination
II-I Testing by Saline Indirect Antiglobulin
Section III Enzyme Techniques
III-A Detecting Antibodies with the Bromelain One-Stage Method
III-B Treating RBCs with -Chymotrypsin
III-C Detecting Antibodies with the Ficin One-Stage Method
III-D Treating RBCs with Ficin
III-E Treating RBCs with Neuraminidase (T-Activation)
III-F Detecting Antibodies with the Papain One-Stage Method
III-G Treating RBCs with Papain
III-H Treating RBCs with Pronase
III-I Treating RBCs with Trypsin (Crude Enzyme)
III-J Treating RBCs with Trypsin (Purified Enzyme)
Section IV Elution Techniques
IV-A Washing Before Eluting
IV-B Eluting Antibodies with Chloroform
IV-C Eluting Antibodies with Chloroform/Trichloroethylene
IV-D Eluting Antibodies with Citric Acid
IV-E Eluting Antibodies with Cold Acid
IV-F Eluting Antibodies from Stroma
IV-G Eluting Antibodies with Ether
IV-H Eluting Antibodies by Freezing-Thawing (Lui Method)
IV-I Eluting Antibodies by Freezing-Thawing (Wiener Method)
IV-J Eluting Antibodies by Heat
IV-K Eluting Antibodies with Methylene Chloride
IV-L Eluting Antibodies with Microwaves
IV-M Eluting Antibodies from Placental Tissue
IV-N Eluting Antibodies Using Ultrasound
IV-O Eluting Antibodies with Xylene/D-Limonene
IV-P Dissociating of IgG with EDTA-Glycine-HCl
IV-Q Dissociating of IgG with Chloroquine Diphosphate
Section V Cell Separation Methods
V-A Harvesting Autologous RBCs by Direct Centrifugation
V-B Harvesting Autologous RBCs Using Phthalate Esters
V-C Cell Separation Using Percoll-Renografin Procedure
V-D Harvesting Autologous RBCs in Hemoglobin S or Sickle Cell Disease
V-E Separating Mixed-Cell Populations with Antibodies
V-F Mononuclear Cell Separation Procedure
Section VI Alternative Serologic Methods for Antibody Detection
VI-A Capillary: Saline Agglutination Procedure
VI-B Capillary: Albumin One-Layer Procedure
VI-C Capillary: Albumin Two-Layer Procedure
VI-D Capillary: Papain One-Stage Procedure
VI-E Capillary: Ficin One-Stage Procedure
VI-F Capillary: IAT on Precoated RBCs Procedure
VI-G Capillary: Precoating for IAT Procedure
VI-H Microplate: ABO and Rh Typing Procedure
VI-I Microplate: Antibody Detection Using LISS Procedure
VI-J Microplate: LIP Technique Procedure
VI-K Gel: Preparing Buffered Gel Columns
VI-L Gel: Preparing Anti-IgG Columns
VI-M Gel: Detecting Antibodies Using Buffered Gel Columns
VI-N Gel: Detecting Antibodies Using Anti-IgG Columns
Appendix VI-1 Capillary Methods: General Considerations
Appendix VI-2 Microplate Tests: General Considerations
Appendix VI-3 Sephadex Gel Beads: Background Information
Appendix VI-4 Agglutination Reactions in Gel Columns
Section VII Reagent RBCs (Non-Enzyme-Treated)
VII-A Preparing C3b/C4b-Coated RBCs
VII-B Preparing IgM/C3b-Coated RBCs
VII-C Preparing C3b-Coated RBCs: Fruitstone Method
VII-D Preparing C4b-Coated RBCs
VII-E Preparing Immunoglobulin-Coated RBCs
VII-F Preparing IgG-Coated RBCs
VII-G Treating RBCs: AET Procedure
VII-H Treating RBCs: DTT Procedure
VII-I Inactivating S Antigen: Sodium Hypochlorite Treatment
VII-J Freezing RBCs: Glycerol Preservation and Recovery
VII-K Freezing RBCs: Liquid Nitrogen Preservation and Recovery
Section VIII Antibody Identification
VIII-A Identification of Single or Multiple Antibodies (Process)
Figure VIII-A-1 Considerations in investigating unexpected antibodies
Figure VIII-A-2 Considerations in investigating blood samples with a
positive autocontrol
Table VIII-A-1 Serologic Characteristics of Some Alloantibodies to RBC
VIII-B Management of Samples and Patients with Cold Agglutinins (Process)
VIII-C Evaluation of Panel Results: Crossing Out (Process)
Figure VIII-C-1 Antigens crossed out on the top of the antigen profile
Figure VIII-C-2 Antigens crossed out on each individual panel cell
VIII-D Selected Cells Process
VIII-E Selection of Antigen-Negative Blood for Transfusion (Process)
Table VIII-E-1 Selection of Antigen-Negative Blood for Transfusion
VIII-F Determination of Probability Levels (Process)
Table VIII-F-1 Probability Values
VIII-G Acidifying Sera
VIII-H Using a Combined Adsorption/Elution Procedure
VIII-I Detecting Trypsin-Resistant NVG Receptors
VIII-J Using Soluble Blood Group Substances in an Inhibition Procedure
Table VIII-J-1 Antibody Inhibition by Blood Group Substances
VIII-K Inhibiting Rouleaux with DIDS
VIII-L Identifying Anti-Nform
VIII-M Detecting Complement-Fixing Antibodies by a Two-Stage EDTA-IAT
Appendix VIII-1 Evaluation of Initial Antibody Identification Panel
Appendix VIII-2 Approaches to Identify/Confirm Antibody Specificity
Section IX Investigating Antibodies to High-Prevalence Antigens
Table IX-1 Effect of Papain and Thiol Reagents on Reactions of
Antibodies to High-Prevalence RBC Antigens
Table IX-2 Effects of Enzymes and Chemicals on Reactions of
Antibodies to High-Prevalence RBC Antigens
Figure IX-1 Investigation of antibodies to high-prevalence antigens
IX-A Inhibiting Antibodies with Pooled Plasma or Serum
IX-B Identifying Anti-Ch/Rg: Rapid Procedure
IX-C Recognizing Antibodies To HLA Determinants
IX-D Using Allogeneic C4 for Adsorption of Anti-Ch/Rg
IX-E Using 2 M Urea for the Screening/Confirmation of Jk(a-b-) RBCs
Section X Prenatal and Perinatal Testing
X-A Tests During Pregnancy (Process)
X-B Rh Immune Globulin Administration (Process)
X-C Evaluation of HDFN at Delivery (Process)
Figure X-B-1 Flow diagram for Rh Immune Globulin administration
X-D Prenatal Antibody Titration Procedure
X-E Screening for Fetal Rh-Positive RBCs in Maternal Rh-Negative Samples
X-F Quantifying Anti-D with the Enzyme-Linked Antiglobulin Test
X-G Screening for Large Fetomaternal Hemorrhage (Modified Kleihauer-Betke
Acid-Elution Test)
X-H Quantifying Fetomaternal Hemorrhage with the Enzyme-Linked
Antiglobulin Test
X-I Analyzing Amniotic Fluid by Spectrophotometry
X-J Treating Cord Blood Contaminated with Wharton's Jelly
Section XI Investigating Samples Containing Autoantibodies
Table XI-1 Specificity of Cold-Reactive Autoantibodies: Comparison of
Reactions with Untreated O, I+ RBCs
XI-A Investigation of Cases of Immune Hemolysis and/or a Positive DAT
XI-B Antiglobulin Testing: Direct Tests with Anti-IgG and Anti-C3
XI-C Antiglobulin Testing: Direct Tests with Anti-IgM and Anti-IgA
XI-D Antiglobulin Testing: Direct Tests with Polybrene
XI-E Antiglobulin Testing: Enzyme-Linked DAT
XI-F Dispersing Autoagglutination
XI-G Testing the Thermal Amplitude of a Cold-Reactive Autoantibody
XI-H Diagnostic Testing of a Cold-Reactive Autoantibody by Titration
XI-I Determining Specificity of a Cold-Reactive Autoantibody by Titration
XI-J Adsorbing Cold-Reactive Autoantibodies with Autologous RBCs
XI-K Adsorbing Cold Autoantibodies with Heterologous (Rabbit) RBCs
XI-L Testing for PCH Using the Donath-Landsteiner Test
XI-M Determining the Specificity of Warm-Reactive Autoantibodies by Titration
XI-N Adsorbing Warm-Reactive Autoantibodies with Enzyme-Treated
Autologous RBCs
XI-O Adsorbing Autoantibodies with ZZAP-Treated Autologous RBCs
XI-P Adsorbing Autoantibodies with ZZAP-Treated Autologous RBCs
XI-Q Adsorbing Warm-Reactive Autoantibodies with Allogeneic RBCs
Section XII Investigating Drug-Induced Hemolysis
Table XII-1 Drugs Reported to Cause Immune Hemolysis and a Positive
XII-A Dissolving Drugs in Solution
XII-B Preparing Urine for Detecting Metabolite-Dependent Antibodies
XII-C Detecting Drug-Dependent Antibodies Reacting with Drug-Treated RBCs
XII-D Detecting Antibodies to Semisynthetic Penicillins
XII-E Detecting Cephalothin-Dependent Antibodies
XII-F Detecting Drug-Dependent Antibodies Reacting in the Presence of Drug
XII-G Detecting Metabolite-Dependent Antibodies Reacting in the Presence of Drug
Section XIII Investigating ABO Typing Problems
Table XIII-1 Causes of ABO Typing Discrepancies
Table XIII-2 Some Anomalous or Uncommon ABO Typing Results
Figure XIII-1 Flow chart for the investigation of ABO discrepancies
XIII-A Investigation of Mixed-Field Reactions (Process)
XIII-B Investigation of Nonconcordant ABO Typing Reactions (Process)
XIII-C Evaluating an ABO Discrepancy
XIII-D Using Protease-Treated RBCs for ABO Typing Resolution
XIII-E Confirming Weak A Or B Antigen Expression by Adsorption and Elution
XIII-F Detecting Minor RBC Populations and ABO Mixtures
XIII-G Determining ABH Secretor Status
XIII-H Determining H Antigen Expression
XIII-I Separating A:O Mixtures
XIII-J Detecting A and B Transferases by Conversion of Group O RBCs
XIII-K Selecting Plasma Containing High-Titer Anti-A and/or Anti-B
Section XIV Investigating RBC Polyagglutination
Table XIV-1 Reactions of Polyagglutinable RBCs with Lectins
XIV-A Detecting Polyagglutination with AB and Cord Blood Serum
XIV-B Preparing Crude Extracts of Lectins
XIV-C Preparing Solutions of Purified Lectins
XIV-D Aggregating RBCs with Polybrene
XIV-E Acetylating RBCs
XIV-F Inhibiting Acquired-B Reactivity
XIV-G Testing RBCs with Acidified Anti-B
Section XV Miscellaneous Methods
XV-A Testing for PNH: Acid Hemolysis (Ham's) Test
Table XV-A-1 Acid Hemolysis Test Procedure
XV-B Testing for HEMPAS: Modified Acid Hemolysis (Ham's) Test
XV-C Converting IgG Antibodies to Direct Agglutinins
XV-D Assessing RBC Survival Using 51Cr-Labeled RBCs
XV-E Differentiating IgM from IgG Antibodies Using DTT
Table XV-E-1 Interpretation of 2-ME/DTT Studies to Determine Immunoglobulin Class of Antibody
XV-F Differentiating IgM from IgG Antibodies Using 2-ME
XV-G Performing Dosage Studies Using the Enzyme-Linked Antiglobulin Test
XV-H Predicting Clinical Significance Using the Monocyte Monolayer Assay
XV-I Screening for PNH: Sucrose Hemolysis Test
XV-J Isolating Genomic DNA from Blood
XV-K Converting Plasma to Serum
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