Chapter two sets out the market drivers and forecasts for global engine trends through to 2020. Forecast data is provided by region for petrol, diesel and Hybrid/EV engine production. The chapter discusses global legislation – both current and planned – as well as standards on emissions regulation. This section of the research also highlights consumer trends in engine buying, explaining how the three main developed-market areas have evolved remarkably different consumer preferences.
Chapter three: Current and future SI technologies
This chapter assesses product trends and processes associated with the petrol SI engine. The chapter provides authoritative commentary on engine construction, engine management and emission control as well as exhaust aftertreatment.
Chapter four: Current and future Diesel (CI) technologies
This chapter reviews the compression-ignition (diesel) engine, and analyses the key differences between its petrol engine counterpart. The advantages of the turbodiesel are explained, and the alternatives to the turbocharger are also reviewed. Engine management and emission control, as well as exhaust aftertreatment are also covered.
Chapter five: Hybrid IC powertrain technology
This chapter reviews current hybrid technologies, and looks at whether existing claims made for their efficiency and fuel economy are valid. It also looks at diesel-electric hybrids, and assesses the likelihood of such engines achieving volume production.
Chapter six: Beyond the internal combustion engine
This chapter looks at the principle alternatives, such as fuel cell technology and Battery Electric Vehicles. Will the potential problems associated with the fuel cell hybrid prevent widespread adoption of this technology?
The report provides answers to such vital questions as:
- After losing significant ground to the diesel engine in Europe, will the petrol engine regain market share across the EU-27?
- Will it just be the Japanese vehicle manufacturers that continue to lead the auto industry’s move into the hybrid and EV markets in the coming years?
- How viable is the HCCI principle, and will it prove more commercially successful than the fuel cell vehicle?
- What are the main challenges to vehicle engine designers, in terms of emission regulation compliance?
- How do distinctly different consumer preferences in the three main regions complicate both engine design and product planning?
- Will the development of diesel hybrids finally ignite European interest in the hybrid concept?
- Will the fuel cell establish itself as the true power unit of the future, or will it lose its way?
Chapter 1: Introduction
Chapter 2: The market
2.1: Fuels, emissions and consumer trends
2.2: Liquid fuels predominate
2.3: Carbon emissions and man-made climate change
2.4: Global legislation and standards on emissions regulation
2.5: Current and planned regulation
2.6: CO2 limitations
2.7: Major vehicle production trends
2.8: Market size and forecasts
2.8.1: Petrol (gasoline) engines
2.8.2: Diesel engines
2.8.4: Fuel cell
Chapter 3: Current and future SI technologies
3.1: The internal combustion engine, past and present – basic principles
3.1.2: Minimising losses
3.2: Current and future SI technologies
3.2.1: Petrol (SI) basics
3.3: Engine construction
3.3.1: Cylinder head
3.3.2: Cylinder block
3.3.3: Bottom-end and rotating assembly
3.3.4: Valve gear
188.8.131.52: Valve operation
184.108.40.206: Variable valve timing and lift
220.127.116.11: The camless engine
3.3.5: Induction and fuel system
18.104.22.168: Basic principles of mixture formation
22.214.171.124: Lean burn
126.96.36.199: Gasoline direct injection
3.3.6: Ignition system
3.3.7: Cold starting
3.3.8: Pressure charging
3.3.9: Engine management and emission control
188.8.131.52: Control technologies
184.108.40.206: Exhaust aftertreatment
Chapter 4: Current and future Diesel (CI) technologies
4.1: Engine construction
4.1.1: Cylinder head
4.1.2: Cylinder block
4.1.3: Bottom end
4.2: Induction and fuel system
4.2.1: Diesel differences
4.2.2: Turbodiesel advantages
4.2.3: Alternatives to the turbocharger?
4.2.4: Fuel injection: common rail and unit injectors
4.2.5: Injector principles – conventional and piezo
4.2.6: Engine management and emission control
220.127.116.11: Control technologies
18.104.22.168: Exhaust aftertreatment
4.3: The HCCI principle
Chapter 5: Hybrid IC powertrain technology
5.1: Hybrid principles
5.2: Petrol-electric hybrid
5.2.1: Atkinson and Miller cycle engines
5.3: Electric motors, batteries and supercapacitors
5.4: Plug-in hybrids
5.5: Diesel-electric hybrids
5.6: Hybrid drive management
Chapter 6: Beyond the internal combustion engine
6.1: Possible alternatives
6.2: Fuel cells
6.2.1: The fuel cell engine
6.3: Other technologies
Vehicle manufacturer production and market share
List of figures
Figure 1: Comparison of global CO2 regulations for passenger vehicles (NEDC gCO2/km)
Figure 2: Share of global vehicle production 2008 / 2011
Figure 3: New passenger cars: EU Diesel market share by member state, 2010
List of tables
Table 1: EU: emission standards for passenger cars (ECE + EUDC chassis dynamometer test)
Table 2: CO2 emissions and weight in 2011 by manufacturer with 2015 and 2020 CO2 targets (passenger vehicles only)
Table 3: Light vehicle engine production by region to 2020 (million units)
Table 4: Petrol engine production to 2020 (million units)
Table 5: Diesel engine production to 2020 (million units)
Table 6: Hybrid/EV production by manufacturer to 2020 (million units)