Energy Efficiency in Wireless Networks

  • ID: 2379263
  • Book
  • 116 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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The last decade has witnessed an unprecedented development and growth in global wireless communications systems, technologies and network traffic generated over network infrastructures.
This book presents state–of–the–art energy–efficient techniques, designs and implementations that pertain to wireless communication networks such as cellular networks, wireless local area networks (WLANs) and wireless ad hoc networks (WAHNs) including mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), and wireless sensor networks (WSNs) as they are deployed across the world to facilitate always on reliable high–speed wireless access from anywhere, at anytime to accommodate the new paradigm of the Internet of Things (IoT).
The pervasive and exponential growth of Wi–Fi and the impact of bandwidth–intensive applications on the energy consumption of Wi–Fi–enabled devices are discussed along with energy harvesting as an advantageous option to power WAHNs.
The book aims to serve as a useful reference for researchers, students, regulatory authorities, and educators.

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PREFACE ix

CHAPTER 1. ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN CELLULAR NETWORKS  1

1.1. Overview of cellular communication networks 1

1.2. Metrics for measuring energy efficiency in cellular wireless communication systems 4

1.3. Energy efficiency in base stations 4

1.4. Energy–efficient cellular network design 10

1.5. Interference management and mitigation 11

1.6. Enabling technologies 12

1.6.1. Energy–efficient communication via cognitive radio 12

1.6.2. Using cooperative relays to support energy–efficient communication 13

1.6.2.1. Enabling energy–efficient communication via fixed relays 14

1.6.2.2. Communications in cellular networks via user cooperation 15

CHAPTER 2. ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN WIRELESS AD HOC NETWORKS 17

2.1. Overview of wireless ad hoc networks 17

2.2. Metrics for measuring energy efficiency in wireless ad hoc networks 18

2.3. Energy losses in wireless ad hoc networks 19

2.4. Energy efficiency in wireless sensor networks 20

2.4.1. Energy efficiency in wireless sensor networks 21

2.5. Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) 32

2.5.1. Energy efficiency in mobile ad hoc networks 33

CHAPTER 3. ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN WIRELESS LOCAL AREA NETWORKS 37

3.1. Overview of wireless local area networks 37

3.2. Energy consumption metrics for WLANs 39

3.3. Energy efficiency in WLANs 40

3.3.1. Physical layer–based energy–efficient schemes 40

3.3.2. Medium access control (MAC) layer–based energy–efficient schemes 40

3.3.3. Cross–layer–based energy–efficient schemes 43

3.4. Energy efficiency strategies in IEEE 802.11n 46

CHAPTER 4. ENERGY HARVESTING IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS 49

4.1. Energy harvesting 49

4.1.1. The harvesting concept 53

4.1.1.1. Universal energy–harvesting model 54

4.2. Harvesting techniques 55

4.2.1. Mechanical energy sources 55

4.2.2. Thermal energy sources 57

4.2.3. Radiation energy sources 58

4.2.4. Comparison of harvesting sources 60

4.3. Energy harvesting storage devices 61

4.4. Power management for EH–WSN 62

4.4.1. Discussion on power management for energy harvesting systems 63

4.5. Conclusion 64

CHAPTER 5. FUTURE CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES 65

5.1. Energy efficiency in cellular networks 65

5.1.1. Low–energy spectrum sensing 66

5.1.2. Energy–aware medium access control and energy–efficient routing 66

5.1.3. Energy–efficient resource management in heterogeneous cellular networks 67

5.1.4. Cross–layer design and optimization 67

5.1.5. Energy considerations in practical deployments of cooperative and cognitive radio systems 68

5.2. Energy efficiency in ad hoc networks 69

5.2.1. Sampling techniques 69

5.2.2. MAC protocols 70

5.2.3. Routing 70

5.2.4. Mobility challenges 71

5.2.5. Cognitive radio technology applied in wireless ad hoc networks 71

5.3. Energy efficiency in WLAN 71

5.3.1. IEEE 802.11ac (gigabit Wi–Fi) 71

5.3.2. MIMO–based WLAN 72

5.3.3. Super Wi–Fi (IEEE 802.22) 72

5.4. Energy harvesting in wireless sensor networks 73

5.4.1. Challenges for energy harvesting in harsh conditions 73

5.4.2. Radiation–based energy harvesters 74

5.4.3. Mechanical sources 74

5.4.4. Thermal sources 75

5.4.5. Medical energy harvesting for wireless sensor devices 75

5.5. Energy efficiency for wireless technologies for developing countries 76

BIBLIOGRAPHY 79

LIST OF ACRONYMS 97

INDEX 101

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Oswald Jumira
Sherali Zeadally
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