Nuclear and Radiochemistry. Fundamentals and Applications 2 Volume Set. 3rd Edition

  • ID: 2379590
  • Book
  • 938 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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The third edition of this classic textbook in the field is completely updated and expanded to two volumes to include the latest developments. This handbook and ready reference comprehensively covers nuclear and radiochemistry in a well–structured and readily accessible manner, dealing with the theory and fundamentals in the first half, followed by chapters devoted to such specific topics as nuclear energy and reactors, radionuclides in geo– and cosmochemistry, radioanalysis, radiotracers in chemistry, and radionuclides in the life sciences. The result is a valuable resource for both newcomers as well as established scientists in the field.
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Preface

VOLUME ONE

FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS

The Atom

Atomic Processes

Discovery of the Atomic Nucleus

Nuclear Decay Types

Some Physical Concepts Needed in Nuclear Chemistry

RADIOACTIVITY IN NATURE

Discovery of Radioactivity

Radioactive Substances in Nature

RADIOELEMENTS AND RADIOISOTOPES AND THEIR ATOMIC MASSES

Periodic Table of the Elements

Isotopes and the Chart of Nuclides

Nuclide Masses and Binding Energies

Evidence for Shell Structure in Nuclei

Precision Mass Spectrometry

OTHER PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF NUCLEI

Nuclear Radii

Nuclear Angular Moments

Magnetic Dipole Moments

Electric Quadrupole Moments

Statistics and Parity

Excited States

THE NUCLEAR FORCE AND NUCLEAR STRUCTURE

Nuclear Forces

Charge Independence and Isospin

Nuclear Matter

Fermi Gas Model

Shell Model

Collective Motion in Nuclei

Nilsson Model

The Pairing Force and Quasi–Particles

Macroscopic–Microscopic Model

Interacting Boson Approximation

Further Collective Excitations: Coulomb Excitation, High–Spin States, Giant Resonances

DECAY MODES

Nuclear Instability and Nuclear Spectroscopy

Alpha Decay

Cluster Radioactivity

Proton Radioactivity

Spontaneous Fission

Beta Decay

Electromagnetic Transitions

RADIOACTIVE DECAY KINETICS

Law and Energy of Radioactive Decay

Radioactive Equilibria

Secular Radioactive Equilibrium

Transient Radioactive Equilibrium

Half–Life of Mother Nuclide Shorter than Half–Life of Daughter Nuclide

Similar Half–Lives

Branching Decay

Successive Transformations

NUCLEAR RADIATION

General Properties

Heavy Charged Particles (A>=1)

Beta Radiation

Gamma Radiation

Neutrons

Short–Lived Elementary Particles in Atoms and Molecules

MEASUREMENT OF NUCLEAR RADIATION

Activity and Counting Rate

Gas–Filled Detectors

Scintillation Detectors

Semiconductor Detectors

Choice of Detectors

Spectrometry

Determination of Absolute Disintegration Rates

Use of Coincidence and Anticoincidence Circuits

Low–Level Counting

Neutron Detection and Measurement

Track Detectors

Detectors Used in Health Physics

STATISTICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN RADIOACTIVITY MEASUREMENTS

Distribution of Random Variables

Probability and Probability Distributions

Maximum Likelihood

Experimental Applications

Statistics of Pulse–Height Distributions

Setting Upper Limits When No Counts Are Observed

TECHNIQUES IN NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY

Special Aspects of the Chemistry of Radionuclides

Target Preparation

Measuring Beam Intensity and Fluxes

Neutron Spectrum in Nuclear Reactors

Production of Radionuclides

Use of Recoil Momenta

Preparation of Samples for Activity Measurements

Determination of Half–Lives

Decay–Scheme Studies

In–Beam Nuclear Reaction Studies

VOLUME TWO

NUCLEAR REACTIONS

Collision Kinematics

Coulomb Trajectories

Cross–Sections

Elastic Scattering

Elastic Scattering and Reaction Cross–Section

Optical Model

Nuclear Reactions and Models

Nuclear Reactions Revisited with Heavy Ions

CHEMICAL EFFECTS OF NUCLEAR TRANSMUTATIONS

General Aspects

Recoil Effects

Excitation Effects

Gases and Liquids

Solids

Szilard–Chalmers Reactions

Recoil Labeling and Self–Labeling

INFLUENCE OF CHEMICAL BONDING ON NUCLEAR PROPERTIES

Survey

Dependence of Half–Lives on Chemical Bonding

Dependence of Radiation Emission on the Chemical Environment

Mössbauer Spectrometry

NUCLEAR ENERGY, NUCLEAR REACTORS, NUCLEAR FUEL, AND FUEL CYCLES

Energy Production by Nuclear Fission

Nuclear Fuel and Fuel Cycles

Production of Uranium and Uranium Compounds

Fuel Elements

Nuclear Reactors, Moderators, and Coolants

The Chernobyl Accident

Reprocessing

Radioactive Waste

The Natural Reactors at Oklo

Controlled Thermonuclear Reactors

Nuclear Explosives

SOURCES OF NUCLEAR BOMBARDING PARTICLES

Neutron Sources

Neutron Generators

Research Reactors

Charged–Particle Accelerators

RADIOELEMENTS

Natural and Artificial Radioelements

Technetium and Promethium

Production of Transuranic Elements

Cross–Sections

Nuclear Structure of Superheavy Elements

Spectroscopy of Actinides and Transactinides

Properties of Actinides

Chemical Properties of the Transactinides

RADIONUCLIDES IN GEO– AND COSMOCHEMISTRY

Natural Abundances of the Elements and Isotope Variations

General Aspects of Cosmochemistry

Early Stages of the Universe

Synthesis of the Elements in the Stars

The Solar Neutrino Problem

Interstellar Matter and Cosmic Radiation

DATING BY NUCLEAR METHODS

General Aspect

Cosmogenic Radionuclides

Terrestrial Mother/Daughter Nuclide Pairs

Natural Decay Series

Ratios of Stable Isotopes

Radioactive Disequilibria

Fission Tracks

RADIOANALYSIS

General Aspects

Analysis on the Basis of Inherent Radioactivity

Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA)

Activation by Charged Particles

Activation by Photons

Special Features of Activation Analysis

Isotope Dilution Analysis

Radiometric Methods

Other Analytical Applications of Radiotracers

Absorption and Scattering of Radiation

Radionuclides as Radiation Sources in X–Ray Fluorescence Analysis (XFA)

Analysis with Ion Beams

Radioisotope Mass Spectrometry

RADIOTRACERS IN CHEMISTRY

General Aspects

Chemical Equilibria and Chemical Bonding

Reaction Mechanisms in Homogeneous Systems

Reaction Mechanisms in Heterogeneous Systems

Diffusion and Transport Processes

Emanation Techniques

RADIONUCLIDES IN THE LIFE SCIENCES

Survey

Application in Ecological Studies

Radioanalysis in the Life Sciences

Application in Physiological and Metabolic Studies

Radionuclides Used in Nuclear Medicine

Single–Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT)

Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

Labeled Compounds

TECHNICAL AND INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF RADIONUCLIDES AND NUCLEAR RADIATION

Radiotracer Techniques

Absorption and Scattering of Radiation

Radiation–Induced Reactions

Energy Production by Nuclear Radiation

RADIONUCLIDES IN THE GEOSPHERE AND THE BIOSPHERE

Sources of Radioactivity

Mobility of Radionuclides in the Geosphere

Reactions of Radionuclides with the Components of Natural Waters

Interactions of Radionuclides with Solid Components of the Geosphere

Radionuclides in the Biosphere

Speciation Techniques with Relevance for Nuclear Safeguards, Verification, and Applications

DOSIMETRY AND RADIATION PROTECTION

Dosimetry

External Radiation Sources

Internal Radiation Sources

Radiation Effects in Cell

Radiation Effects in Humans, Animals, and Plants

Non–Occupational Radiation Exposure

Safety Recommendations

Monitoring of the Environment

APPENDIX

Glossary

Physical Constants

Conversion Factors

Relevant Journals

Web References

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Jens–Volker Kratz
Karl Heinrich Lieser
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