Essentials of Energy Technology. Sources, Transport, Storage, Conservation

  • ID: 2379592
  • Book
  • 462 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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An in–depth understanding of energy technology, sources, conversion, storage, transport and conservation is crucial for developing a sustainable and economically viable energy infrastructure. This need, for example, is addressed in university courses with a special focus on the energy mix of renewable and depletable energy resources.

Energy makes our lives comfortable, and the existence of amenities such as heaters, cars, warm water, household appliances and electrical light is characteristic for a developed economy. Supplying the industrial or individual energy consumer with energy 24 hours a day is a non–trivial challenge, especially in times where the energy is coming from very diverse resources such as oil, gas, nuclear fuels, wind, sun, or waves.

This book gives physics, chemistry, engineering, and materials science students insights in the basics of energy and energy technology. It was developed along a successful course for advanced bachelor or graduate students and is written in a didactic style. The problems and solutions at the end of each chapter are ideal for exams and make self–study easy. Topics covered include energy from fossil and nuclear fuels, renewable sources, energy transport, storage, and conservation.

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Preface

INTRODUCTION

Global Energy Flow

Natural and Anthropogenic Greenhouse Effect

Limit to Atmospheric CO2 Concentration

Potential Remedies

ENERGY CONSERVATION WITH THERMAL INSULATION

Opaque Insulations

Transparent and Translucent Insulations

THERMODYNAMIC ENERGY EFFICIENCY

Carnot′s Law

Stirling Engine

Irreversibilities

Exergy and Anergy

Compression Heat Pumps and Air–Conditioning Systems

Absorption Heat Transformers

Energy and Exergy Efficiency

FOSSIL FUEL–FIRED ENERGY CONVERTERS

Power Plants

Internal Combustion Engines

Thermoelectric Converters (TECs)

Exotic Energy Converters

Absorption Cycles

Condensation Boilers

NUCLEAR FISSION ENERGY AND POWER PLANTS

Binding Energy and Mass Defect

Fission

The Multiplication Factor

Reactor Control

Neutron Flux

Reactivity Changes during Power Plant Operation

Fuel Conversion and Breeding

Nuclear Reactor Types

The Fuel Question

U235 Enrichment

Spent Fuel

Reactor Safety and Accidents

HYDROPOWER

Water Runoff from Mountains

Laminar and Turbulent Flow in Pipes

Running Water from Oceans

Ocean Tides

Ocean Waves

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)

Energy from Osmotic Pressure

WINDPOWER

Wind Velocity

Using the Drag

Using the Lift

Technical Questions

Electricity from Wind on Demand

Small–Scale Wind Energy Conversion

Alternative Wind Energy Converters

Wind Energy Concentration

PHOTOVOLTAICS (PV)

Diodes and Solar Cells

Transport Phenomena, Isc and Uoc

Temperature Effects

Equivalent Circuit

Absorption Process and Transitions

Advanced Solar Cells

Si Production and Energy Amortization

Other Solar Materials

From Solar Cells to Modules

Future Prospects for Photovoltaics

Wet Solar Cells

SOLAR SPACE AND HOT WATER HEATING

Solar Radiation

Flat Plate Collectors

Evacuated Thermal Collectors

Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC)

Solar Thermal Heating Systems

Active Solar Heating Systems

Thermosiphon

ELECTRICITY AND FUELS FROM SOLAR HEAT

Concentration of Solar Radiation

Solar Troughs

Fresnel Systems

Solar Dish and Solar Tower

Solar Thermic Power Plants

Solar Fuels

BIOMASS ENERGY

Growth of Biomass

Direct Use of Solid Biomass

Biogas

Biofuel

Hydrothermal Carbonization of Biomass

GEOTHERMAL ENERGY

The Origin of Geothermal Energy

Geothermal Anomalies

Geothermal Power Plants

Hot Dry Rock

ENERGY STORAGE

Mechanical Energy Storage

Electric Energy Storage

Electrochemical Energy Storage

Chemical Energy Storage

Thermal Energy Storage

ENERGY TRANSPORT

Mechanical Energy Transport

Transporting Electricity

Heat Transport

FUEL CELLS

General Considerations

Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC)

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC)

Other Fuel Cells

NUCLEAR FUSION ENERGY

Introduction

Fuel for Fusion

Break–Even and the Lawson Criterion

Magnetic Confinement Fusion (MCF)

International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)

Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF)

The National Ignition Facility (NIF)

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Jochen Fricke
Walter L. Borst
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