Essential Readings in Light Metals. Electrode Technology for Aluminum Production. Volume 4

  • ID: 2488458
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  • 1222 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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ONE OF A FOUR–BOOK COLLECTION SPOTLIGHTING CLASSIC ARTICLES

The best original research findings and reviews in the field of electrode technology

Highlighting some of the most important findings and insights reported over the past five decades, this volume features original research papers and reviews on electrode technology for aluminum production published from 1963 to 2011. The papers have been divided into three subject sections:

  • Part 1, Hall–Héroult Cell Carbon Anodes, includes anode raw materials, anode production, and anode performance.
  • Part 2, Hall–Héroult Cell Cathodes, includes reduction cell materials and reduction cell failure mechanisms.
  • Part 3, Inert Anodes and Wettable Cathodes, includes materials and performance.

Each section has a brief introduction and a list of recommended articles for researchers interested in exploring each subject in greater depth.

Papers for this volume were selected from among more than 1,100 articles published between 1963 and 2011 in Light Metals. Selection was based on a rigorous review process. Among the papers, readers will find landmark original research findings and expert reviews summarizing current thinking on key topics at the time of publication.

From basic research to advanced applications, the articles published in this volume collectively represent a complete overview of electrode technology. It will enable students, scientists, and engineers new to the field to gain a quick introduction to the state of the technology. Moreover, it will enable more experienced practitioners to advance their own research and take full advantage of the latest technology and applications.

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Preface xv

Lead Editors xix

Editorial Team xxi

Part 1: Hall–Héroult Cell Carbon Anodes

Section Introduction 1

Raw Materials: Coke

Calcined Coke from Crude Oil to Customer Silo 3B. Vitchus, F. Cannova, and H. Childs

Refinery Feedstocks, Coke Structures and Aluminum Cell Anodes 11P. Rhedey and D. DuTremblay

Coker Feedstock Characteristics and Calcined Coke Properties 19P. Rhedey and S. Nadkarni

Quality and Process Performance of Rotary Kilns and Shaft Calciners 24L. Edwards

High Vanadium Venezuelan Petroleum Coke, A Rawmaterial for the Aluminum Industry? 30U. Mannweiler, W. Schmidt–Hatting, D. Rodriguez, and A. Maitland

Use of Shot Coke as an Anode Raw Material 36L. Edwards, F. Vogt, M. Robinette, R. Love, A. Ross, M. McClung, R. Roush, and W. Morgan

Influence of High Sulphur Cokes on Anode Performance 42S. Jones, R. Hildebrandt, and M. Hedlund

Carbon Raw Material Effects on Aluminum Reduction Cell Anodes 53P. Rhedey and S. Nadkarni

A Comprehensive Determination of Effects of Calcined Petroleum Coke Properties on Aluminum Reduction Cell Anode Properties 59D. Belitskus and D. Danka

A Comprehensive Review of the Effects of Calcination at Various Temperatures on Coke Structure and Properties — Part 2 73E. Hardin, C. Beilharz, P. Ellis, and L. McCoy

Influence of Coke Real Density on Anode Reactivity Consequence on Anode Baking 84B. Coste and J. Schneider

Coke Calcination Levels and Aluminum Anode Quality 93C. Dreyer, B. Samanos, and F. Vogt

Impact of Coke Calcination Level and Anode Baking Temperature on Anode Properties 101B. Samanos and C. Dreyer

Use of Under–Calcined Coke for the Production of Low Reactivity Anodes 109J. Lhuissier, L. Bezamanifary, M. Gendre, and M. Chollier

Anode Filler Coke Porosity Studies 114P. Rhedey

Desulphurization and Its Effect on Calcined Coke Properties 119R. Garbarino and R. Tonti

Influence of Petroleum Coke Sulphur Content on the Sodium Sensitivity of Carbon Anodes 123S. Hume, W. Fischer, R. Perruchoud, J. Metson, and R. Baker

A Review of Coke and Anode Desulfurization 130L. Edwards, K. Neyrey, and L. Lossius

Coke and Anode Desulfurization Studies 136L. Lossius, K. Neyrey, and L. Edwards

Minimizing Impact of Low Sulfur Coke on Anode Quality 142A. Adams, R. Cahill, Y. Belzile, K. Cantin, and M. Gendron

Evaluating Calcined Coke for Aluminum Smelting by Bulk Density 148D. Belitskus

Maintaining Consistent Anode Density Using Varying Carbon Raw Materials 156S. Wilkening

Coke Blending and Fines Circuit Targeting at the Alcoa Deschambault Smelter 163M. Gendron, S. Whelan, and K. Cantin

Raw Materials: Pitch

Worldwide Pitch Quality for Prebaked Anodes 167R. Perruchoud, M. Meier, and W. Fischer

Coal Tar Pitch — Past, Present, and Future 177J. Baron, S. McKinney, and R. Wombles

Electrode Binder Pyrolysis and Bond–Coke Microstructure 182S. Jones and R. Hildebrandt

Binder for the Ideal Anode Carbon 198S. Jones and E. Bart

Binding Characteristics of Coal Tar Pitches for Prebaked Anode Mix – Choice Criteria: LRF Report 830 215J. Pinoir and P. Hyvernat

The Influence of Solid Particles in Pitch on the Preparation and Baking of the Carbon Blocks 225G. Romovacek

Performance of Binder Pitches With Decreased QI–Content in Anode Making: Formation – Nature – Properties and Substitution of Quinoline Insolubles 232A. Alscher, R. Wildförster, and J. Sharp

Temperature Stability of Søderberg Anode Pitch 239M. Sørlie

Developing Coal Tar/Petroleum Pitches 246R. Wombles and M. Kiser

Raw Materials: Spent Carbon

Investigation of the Quality of Recycled Anode Butts 251W. Schmidt–Hatting, A. Kooijman, and R. Perruchoud

Interdependence Between Properties of Anode Butts and Quality of Prebaked Anodes 267W. Fischer and R. Perruchoud

Raw Material and Anode Characterization

New Methods for Testing Raw Materials for Anode Carbon Paste 271O. Bowitz, T. Eftestol, and R. Selvik

Standardization of a Calcined Coke Bulk Density Test 281D. Belitskus

Reactivity Testing of Anode Carbon Materials 290G. Houston and H. Øye

Characterization of Prebaked Anode Carbon by Mechanical and Thermal Properties 298J. Brown and P. Rhedey

Green Anode Production

Aggregate Optimization Using a Y–Blender 307R. Peterson

Soderberg Paste. Effect of Fine Fraction Variations 313P. Stokka and I. Skogland

Finer Fines in Anode Formulation 318F. Figueiredo, C. Cato, A. Nascimento, A. Marques, and P. Miotto

Process Adaptations for Finer Dust Formulations: Mixing and Forming 322K. Hulse, R. Perruchoud, W. Fischer, and B. Welch

Effects of Mixing Variables and Mold Temperature on Prebaked Anode Quality 328D. Belitskus

Improving Anode Quality by Separately Optimising Mixing and Compacting Temperature 333B. Coste

Vibration Forming of Carbon Blocks 339E. Sandvik, R. Blindheim, and H. Bø

Cooling of Green Anodes After Forming 351W. Fischer, M. Meier, and M. Lustenberger

Recent Improvement in Paste Plant Design: Industrial Application and Results 358C. Vanvoren

Going Beyond SPC — Why We Need Statistical Thinking in Operations Such as Carbon Plants 365K. Sinclair and B. Sadler

Properties and Behaviour of Green Anodes 371S. Wilkening

Potentialities in the Paste Plant 378S. Wilkening

Baked Anode Production

Mathematical Simulation of a Horizontal Flue Ring Furnace 386R. Bui, E. Dernedde, A. Charette, and T. Bourgeois

Flue Gas Management 390W. Leisenberg

Safe Operation of Anode Baking Furnaces 396I. Holden, O. Saeter, F. Aune, and T. Naterstad

Anode Baking: The Underestimated Human Aspect 403F. Keller, P. Sulger, and W. Fischer

Specific Energy Consumption in Anode Bake Furnaces 408F. Keller, P. Sulger, M. Meier, D. Severo, and V. Gusberti

Evaluation of the Uniformity of Baking in Horizontal and Vertical Flue Ring Furnaces 414D. Holdner, S. Nadkarni, and D. DuTremblay

Measurement and Control of the Calcining Level in Anode Baking Furnaces 418T. Foosnaes, N. Kulset, H. Linga, G. Naeumann, and A. Werge–Olsen

The Equivalent Temperature Method for Measuring the Baking Level of Anodes 422L. Lossius, I. Holden, and H. Linga

Baking Parameters and the Resulting Anode Quality 427W. Fischer, F. Keller, R. Perruchoud, and S. Oderbolz

Anode Desulphurization on Baking 434M. Vogt, K. Ries, and M. Smith

The Effect of Prebake Anode Baking Temperature on Potroom Performance 444G. Bain, J. Pruneau, and J. Williams

Influence of Baking Temperature and Anode Effects Upon Carbon Sloughing 450E. Cutshall and V. Bullough

Influence on Anode Baking Temperature and Current Density Upon Carbon Sloughing 469E. Cutshall

Anode Reactivity Influence of the Baking Process 478C. Dreyer

Modern Anode Baking Furnace Developments 486F. Keller and J. Disselhorst

Strategies for the Revision of Bake Furnaces 492F. Keller

Rodded Anode Production and Anode Design

Temperature and Voltage Measurements in Hall Cell Anodes 500R. Peterson

Studies of Stub to Carbon Voltage 510R. Peterson

Factors in the Design of Reduction Cell Anodes 516D. Brooks and V. Bullough

Anode Cast Iron Thickness Optimization 524M. Ohlswager, G. Goeres, and R. Peterson

Drilling of Stub Holes in Prebaked Anodes 529B. Aga, I. Holden, H. Linga, and K. Solbu

Problems of the Stub–Anode Connection 534S. Wilkening and J. Côté

Challenges in Stub Hole Optimisation of Cast Iron Rodded Anodes 543D. Richard, P. Goulet, O. Trempe, M. Dupuis, and M. Fafard

Real Time Temperature Distribution during Sealing Process and Room Temperature Air Gap Measurements of a Hall– Héroult Cell Anode 549O. Trempe, D. Larouche, D. Ziegler, M. Guillot, and M. Fafard

Effects of Carbonaceous Rodding Mix Formulation on Steel–Carbon Contact Resistance 555P. Rhedey and L. Castonguay

Anode Performance: Reactivity Fundamentals

Anode Carbon Reactivity 564S. Jones and R. Hildebrandt

Studies on Anode Reactivity to Oxidant Gases 580J. Rey Boero

Some Practical Consequences of Analyses of the Carboxy and Airburn Reactions of Anode Carbons 589N. Bird, B. McEnaney, and B. Sadler

A Porosimetric Study of Sub–Surface Carboxy Oxidation in Anodes 594B. Sadler and S. Algie

Studies of the Impact of Vanadium and Sodium on the Air Reactivity of Coke and Anodes 606J. Rolle and Y. Hoang

Anode Performance: Dusting

A Review of Factors Affecting Carbon Anode Consumption in the Electrolytic Production of Aluminum 611P. Rhedey

Reflections on the Carbon Consumption of Prebaked Anodes 623S. Wilkening

Anode Dusting in Hall–Heroult Cells 633T. Foosnaes, T. Naterstad, M. Bruheim, and K. Grjotheim

The Influence of Low Current Densities on Anode Performance 643S. Hume, M. Utley, B. Welch, and R. Perruchoud

Dust Generation and Accumulation for Changing Anode Quality and Cell Parameters 649R. Perruchoud, K. Hulse, W. Fischer, and W. Schmidt–Hatting

Anode Dusting from a Potroom Perspective at Nordural and Correlation with Anode Properties 657H. Gudmundsson

The Reduction in Anode Airburn with Protective Covers 663A. Fitchett, D. Morgan, and B. Welch

Reactivity and Electrolytic Consumption of Anode Carbon with Various Additives 667T. Müftüo—lu and H. Øye

Bath Impregnation of Carbon Anodes 673R. Perruchoud, M. Meier, and W. Fischer

Anode Performance: Thermal Shock

Effects of Coke and Formulation Variables on Cracking of Bench Scale Prebaked Anode Specimens 680D. Belitskus

Thermal Shock in Anodes for the Electrolytic Production of Aluminium 687E. Kummer and W. Schmidt–Hatting

Operating Parameters Affecting Thermal Shock Cracking of Anodes in the Valco Smelter 694N. Ambenne and K. Ries

Thermal Shock of Anodes — A Solved Problem? 700M. Meier, W. Fischer, R. Perruchoud, and L. Gauckler

Extrinsic and Intrinsic Aspects of Anode Cracking 710T. Liu, L. Edwards, C. Hughes, B. Mason, and R. McMellon

An Approach for a Complete Evaluation of Resistance to Thermal Shock (Part 1): Applying to the Case of
Anodes and Cathodes 717C. Dreyer and B. Samanos

Finite Element Modelling of Thermal Stress in Anodes 723P. Cook

Recommended Reading 731

Part 2: Hall–Héroult Cell Cathodes

Section Introduction 739

Cell Lining: Cathodes

ISO Standards for Testing of Cathode Materials 741H. Øye

Laboratory Testing of Carbon Cathode Materials at Operational Temperatures 747M. Sørlie and H. Øye

Structural Changes in Carbon by Heat Treatment 754S. Brandtzaeg, H. Linga, and H. Øye

Low Electrical Resistivity and High Thermal Conductivity Carbon Products: The Solution for Cell Lining 762D. Dumas and C. Michel

Aluminium Pechiney Experience with Graphitized Cathode Blocks 773D. Lombard, T. Béhérégaray, B. Fève, and J. Jolas

Some Experiments in Cathode Carbon 779S. Wilkening

How to Improve the Pig Iron Sealing of Metallic Bars in Cathode Carbon Blocks 787I. Letizia, C. Bizzarri, and M. Lezzerini

Stress Analysis of Cathode Bottom Blocks 793B. Larsen and M. Sørlie

Experimental Comparison of Cathode Rodding Practices 799L. Caruso, K. Rye, and M. Sørlie

Cell Lining: Ramming Paste

Compaction of Room Temperature Ramming Paste 804M. Sørlie and H. Øye

Densification of Ramming Paste in Cathodes 814M. Sørlie, B. Faaness , and J. Belmonte

Investigation into the Expansion/Contraction Behaviour of Cold Ramming Pastes during Baking Using a Horizontal Dilatometer Method 821B. Hocking

Ramming Paste Related Failures in Cathode Linings 827B. Faaness, H. Gran, M. Sørlie, and H. Øye

Cell Lining: Refractories

Corrosion and Behaviour of Fireclay Bricks of Varying Chemical Composition Used in the Bottom Lining of Reduction Cells 834F. Brunk

Experiences with Dry Barrier Powder Materials in Aluminium Electrolysis Cells 840O.–J. Siljan, O. Junge, T. Svendsen, and K. Thovsen

Cathode Refractory Materials for Aluminium Reduction Cells 849C. Schøning, T. Grande, and O. Siljan

Evaluation of Silicon Carbide Bricks 857A. Tabereaux and A. Fickel

Quality Evaluation of Nitride Bonded Silicon Carbide Sidelining Materials 866E. Skybakmoen, L. Stoen, J. Kvello, and O. Darell

SiC in Electrolysis Pots: An Update 872R. Pawlek

Thermal Insulation Materials for Reduction Cell Cathodes 876A. Tabereaux

Cathode Performance: Failure Modes

Use of Cell Autopsy to Diagnose Potlining Problems 888R. Jeltsch

Processes Occurring in the Carbon Lining of an Aluminum Reduction Cell 894J. Waddington

A Study of Some Aspects of the Influence of Cell Operation on Cathode Life 903C. Clelland, J. Keniry, and B. Welch

Potlining Failure Modes 909M. Dell

Design of Highly Reliable Pot Linings 914J. Peyneau

Early Failure Mechanisms in Aluminium Cell Cathodes 921M., J. Hvistendahl, and H. Øye

A Comparative Examination of Ageing of Cathodes: Amorphous Versus Graphitic Type 931E. Berhauser and J. Mittag

Property Changes of Cathode Lining Materials during Cell Operation 936M. Sørlie, H. Gran, and H. Øye

Cathode Performance: Chemical Reactions

Reaction Between Carbon Lining and Hall Bath 946M. Dell

Penetration of Sodium and Bath Constituents into Cathode Carbon Materials Used in Industrial Cells 953C. Krohn, M. Sorlie, and H. Øye

Chemical Resistance of Cathode Carbon Materials during Electrolysis 960M. Sørlie and H. Øye

The Effect of Current Density on Cathode Expansion during Start–Up 966A. Ratvik, A. Støre, A. Solheim, and T. Foosnaes

Reactions in the Bottom Lining of Aluminium Reduction Cells 972A. Solheim, C. Schøning, and E. Skybakmoen

Chemical Degradation Map for Sodium Attack in Refractory Linings 978K. Tschöpe, J. Rutlin, T. Grande

Cathode Performance: Erosion

Physical and Chemical Wear of Carbon Cathode Materials 984X. Liao and H. Øye

Carbon Cathode Corrosion by Aluminium Carbide Formation in Cryolitic Melts 992X. Liao and H. Øye

Erosion of Cathode Blocks in 180 kA Prebake Cells 999A. Tabereaux, J. Brown, I. Eldridge, and T. Alcorn

Graphite Cathode Wear Study at Alouette 1005P. Reny and S. Wilkening

Electrolytic Degradation within Cathode Materials 1011P. Rafiei, F. Hiltmann, M. Hyland, B. James, and B. Welch

Influence of Internal Cathode Structure on Behavior during Electrolysis Part II: Porosity and Wear Mechanisms in Graphitized Cathode Materials 1017P. Patel, M. Hyland, and F. Hiltmann

Influence of Internal Cathode Structure on Behavior during Electrolysis Part III: Wear Behavior in Graphitic Materials 1023P. Patel, M. Hyland, and F. Hiltmann

Spent Pot Lining

Formation and Distribution of Cyanide in the Lining of Aluminum Reduction Cells 1029R. Peterson, L. Blayden, and E. Martin

Potlining Flux in Making Steel 1037D. Augood, R. Schlager, and P. Belding

Thermal Treatment of Spent Potliner in a Rotary Kiln 1044D. Brooks, E. Cutshall, D. Banker, and D. Strahan

Treatment and Reuse of Spent Pot Lining, an Industrial Application in a Cement Kiln 1049P. Personnet

Co–Processing at Cement Plant of Spent Potlining from the Aluminum Industry 1057V. Gomes, P. Drumond, J. Neto, and A. Lira

Development Status of Processing Technology for Spent Potlining in China 1064W. Li and X. Chen

Recommended Reading 1067

Part 3: Inert Anodes and Wettable Cathodes

Section Introduction 1071

Inert Anodes

Solubilities of Oxides for Inert Anodes in Cryolite–Based Melts 1073D. DeYoung

Corrosion and Passivation of Cermet Inert Anodes in Cryolite–Type Electrolytes 1082G. Tarcy

Testing of Cerium Oxide Coated Cermet Anodes in a Laboratory Cell 1094J. Gregg, M. Frederick, H. King, and A. Vaccaro

A Non–Consumable Metal Anode for Production of Aluminum with Low Temperature Fluoride Melts 1104T. Beck

The Behaviour of Nickel Ferrite Cermet Materials as Inert Anodes 1110E. Olsen and J. Thonstad

Tin Dioxide–Based Ceramics as Inert Anodes for Aluminium Smelting: A Laboratory Study 1119A. Vecchio–Sadus, D. Constable, R. Dorin, E. Frazer, I. Fernandez, G. Neal, S. Lathabai, and M. Trigg

Inert Anodes: An Update 1126R. Pawlek

Wettable Cathodes

The Application of the Refractory Carbides and Borides to Aluminum Reduction Cells 1134C. Ransley

Use of TiB2 Cathode Material: Application and Benefits in Conventional VSS Cells 1145L. Boxall, A. Cooke, and H. Hayden

Use of TiB2 Cathode Material: Demonstrated Energy Conservation in VSS Cells 1153A. Cooke and W. Buchta

A Review of RHM Cathode Development 1164C. McMinn

Properties of a Colloidal Alumina–Bonded TiB2 Coating on Cathode Carbon Materials 1171H. Øye, V. de Nora, J. Duruz, and G. Johnston

Sodium and Bath Penetration into TiB2–Carbon Cathodes during Laboratory Aluminium Electrolysis 1179J. Xue and H. Øye

Wettable Cathodes: An Update 1185R. Pawlek

Recommended Reading 1191

Author Index. 1193

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ALAN TOMSETT, PhD, is Technical Director for the Pacific Technology Center, Pacific Aluminum, where he provides technical support and advice to the Pacific Aluminum smelters. Dr. Tomsett has more than twenty–five years of experience in carbon anode and cathode technology.

JOHN JOHNSON, MS, heads his own consulting business. He has forty–two years of experience in the aluminum industry, specializing in prebake and VSS anode technology as well as prebake cell design and development. Mr. Johnson was the Editor of Light Metals 2010.

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