Optics in Instruments. Applications in Biology and Medicine

  • ID: 2489168
  • Book
  • 242 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Optics is a science which covers a very large domain and is experiencing indisputable growth. It has enabled the development of a considerable number of instruments, the optical component or methodology of which is often the essential part of portent systems. This book sets out show how optical physical phenomena such as lasers the basis of instruments of measurement are involved in the fields of biology and medicine.Optics in Instruments: Applications in Biology and Medicine details instruments and measurement systems using optical methods in the visible and near–infrared, as well as their applications in biology and medicine, through looking at confocal laser scanning microscopy, the basis of instruments performing in biological and medical analysis today, and flow cytometry, an instrument which measures at high speed the parameters of a cell passing in front of one or more laser beams. The authors also discuss optical coherence tomography (OCT), which is an optical imaging technique using non–contact infrared light, the therapeutic applications of lasers, where they are used for analysis and care, and the major contributions of plasmon propagation in the field of life sciences through instrumental developments, focusing on propagating surface plasmons (PSP) and localized plasmons (LP).

Contents:

1. Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Thomas Olivier and Baptiste Moine.
2. Flow Cytometry (FCM) Measurement of Cells in Suspension, Odile Sabido.
3. Optical Coherence Tomography, Claude Boccara and Arnaud Dubois.
4. Therapeutic Applications of Lasers, Geneviève Bourg–Heckly and Serge Mordon.
5. Plasmonics, Emmanuel Fort.

About the Authors

Jean–Pierre Goure is Emeritus Professor of optics at Jean Monnet University in Saint–Etienne, France, and was previously director of the UMR 5516 laboratory linked with CNRS. He is the author of more than 100 publications in various fields, such as spectroscopy, instrumentation, sensors, optical fiber and optical communications. He was also previously deputy director in engineering science at CNRS and a member of several scientific associations such as the French Optical Society and the European Optical Society.

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Preface ix

Introduction xiii

Chapter 1 Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy 1Thomas OLIVIER and Baptiste MOINE

1.1 Introduction 1

1.1.1 Context and framework of chapter 1

1.1.2 From wide–field microscopy to confocal microscopy 3

1.2 Principle and implementation 6

1.2.1 General principle 7

1.2.2 Axial and lateral resolution in confocal microscopy 9

1.2.3 Some notions of fluorescence 21

1.2.4 Main elements of a confocal scanning laser microscope 25

1.3 Applications in biology, potential and limitations 40

1.3.1 Basic elements of biology for the neophyte 41

1.3.2 Fluorescent labeling 43

1.3.3 Practical implementation of confocal microscopy 46

1.4 Related and derived techniques 62

1.4.1 Advanced contrast modes: FRAP, FLIP, FLIM, FRET, etc 62

1.4.2 The contribution of nonlinear contrast modes 66

1.4.3 Recent major advances: overcoming the diffraction limit 72

1.5 Bibliography 74

Chapter 2 Flow Cytometry (FCM) Measurement of Cells in Suspension 79Odile SABIDO

2.1 History of FCM 79

2.2 Components of the cytometer: fluidics, optics and signal processing 80

2.2.1 Fluidics 81

2.2.2 Optics 81

2.2.3 Signal processing 83

2.3 Experimentation strategy 83

2.3.1 Visualizations of the spectra 84

2.3.2 Compensation of fluorescences 84

2.3.3 Checking the optical bench 84

2.3.4 Presentation of parameters A/H/W 85

2.3.5 Graphical presentation 85

2.4 Types of platform for FCM 87

2.4.1 Clinical platform 87

2.4.2 Research platform 87

2.5 Principle of cell sorting 88

2.6 Analyzed parameters 90

2.6. 1Light scattering 90

2.6.2 Fluorochromes 90

2.7  Applications in biology 93

2.7.1 Clinical 93

2.7.2 Research 93

2.7.3 Environment 94

2.7.4 Plant biology 94

2.7.5 Industrial microbiology 94

2.8 Complementarities of the FCM with the other cytometries, confocal and dynamic 95

2.9 Cytometry on beads, LUMINEXTM type 95

2.10 Scientific societies 96

2.11 Websites to visit 96

2.12 Bibliography 97

2.13 Reference books 99

Chapter 3 Optical Coherence Tomography 101
Claude BOCCARA and Arnaud DUBOIS

3.1 Introduction 101

3.2 Principles of OCT 102

3.3 Frequency–domain OCT 104

3.4 Spatial resolution 106

3.5 Applications of OCT 107

3.5.1 Ophtalmology 107

3.5.2 Internal medicine 107

3.5.3 Other fields of application 108

3.6 Extensions of OCT 109

3.7 Full–field OCT 110

3.7.1 Principle 110

3.7.2 Spatial resolution 111

3.7.3 Dynamics and sensitivity 113

3.7.4 Operating speed 113

3.7.5 Applications 114

3.8 Conclusion 119

3.9 Bibliography 119

Chapter 4 Therapeutic Applications of Lasers 125
Geneviève BOURG–HECKLY and Serge MORDON

4.1 Introduction 125

4.2 Interaction of light with biological tissues 127

4.2.1 Optical parameters characterizing light radiation 127

4.2.2 The three types of interaction between a light beam and a biological tissue 131

4.2.3 Penetration of light in biological tissues 151

4.3 Therapeutic effects of lasers 155

4.3.1 Thermal effect 156

4.3.2 Photoablative effect 167

4.3.3 Photochemical or photodynamic effect 168

4.3.4 The electromechanical effect 174

4.4 Conclusion 175

4.5 For more information 175

4.6 Bibliography 176

Chapter 5 Plasmonics 179Emmanuel FORT

5.1 Propagating surface plasmons 180

5.1.1 Theoretical reminders and definitions 180

5.1.2 Surface plasmon resonance sensors 185

5.1.3 Units and sensitivity of SPR sensors 189

5.1.4 Other SPR configurations 190

5.1.5 SPR imaging 191

5.1.6 Surface plasmons coupled fluorescence 194

5.2 Localized surface plasmons 201

5.2.1 Theoretical reminders 201

5.2.2 Detection of plasmonic nanoprobes 203

5.3 Conclusion 210

5.4 Bibliography 211

List of Authors 217

Index 219

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Jean Pierre Goure
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