Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Coastal and Estuarine Studies, Volume 57.
Every time it rains, biologically active nitrogen compounds are transferred from the air to whatever surface lies underneath; what a farmer once called "the poor man′s fertilizer." In fact, nitrogen containing compounds are transferred between surface and atmosphere even when it is not raining. That this atmospheric nitrogen deposition impacts on the environment is a scientifically accepted fact, established during the acid rain debates led by the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program. The extent to which this deposition contributes to the decline of coastal waters around the United States due to over fertilization, however, is still under debate. In response to and as a continuation of this debate is the current work before you: the first attempt to consistently and comprehensively estimate the relative contribution of atmospherically delivered nitrogen to the total amount of nitrogen entering coastal estuaries around the United States.
PrefaceRichard A. Valigura vii
An Introduction to the First Assessmenot f Nitrogen Loads to US Estuaries with an Atmospheric PerspectiveRichard A. Valigura 1
Atmospheric D eposition o f Nitrogen in Coastal W aters: Biogeochemicai and Ecological ImplicationsHans W. Paerl, Walter R. Boynton, Robin L. Dennis, Charles T. Driscoll, Holly S. Greening, James N. Kremer, Nancy N. Rabalais, and Sybil P. Seitzinger 11
Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition to Coastal Estuaries and Their WatershedsTilden Meyers, Joseph Sickles, Robin Dennis, Kristina Russell, James Galloway, and Thomas Church 53
Contribution of Atmospheric Deposition to the Total Nitrogen Loads to Thirty–four Estuaries on the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of the United StatesMark S. Castro, Charles T. Driscoll, Thomas E. Jordan, Wlliam G. Reay, Walter R. Boynton, Sybil P. Seitzinger, Rende V . Styles, and Dave E. Cable 77
A Comparison of Independent N–loading Estimates for U.S. EstuariesR. E. Turner, D. Stanley, D. Brock, J. Pennock and N. N. Rabalais 107
Atmospheric Nitrogen Flux From the Watersheds of Major Estuaries of the United States: An Application of the SPARROW Watershed ModelRichard B. Alexander, Richard A. Smith, Gregory E. Schwartz, Stephen D. Preston, John W. Brakebill, Raghavan Srinivasan, and Percy A. Pacheco 119
Uncertainties in Individual Estuary N–loading AssessmentsD. A. Brock 171
Contributions of Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition to U.S. Estuaries: Summary and ConclusionsPaul E. Stacey, Holly S. Greening, James N. Kremer, David Peterson, and David A. Tomasko 187
An Annotated Summary of Nitrogen Loading to US EstuariesD. Stanley 227