The Extreme Proterozoic. Geology, Geochemistry, and Climate. Geophysical Monograph Series

  • ID: 2489214
  • Book
  • 220 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 146.

Earth climate is uniquely determined at any time by the varied interactions of its components: lithosphere, biosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere (ocean, lakes and rivers) and cryosphere. Over the past 544 million years (the Phanerozoic Eon), these components of the climate system have undergone significant changes but perhaps none more extreme than in the Proterozoic Era (2.5 G–544 Ma) With at least three periods with low–latitude glacial deposits (during the Palaeoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic), the cryosphere may have dominated the earth′s surface, possibly the only such event in earth′s history. Indeed, if the Earth had an obliquity similar to the present (23.45), then low–latitude glaciation could represent a nearly ice– and snow–covered globe. Effects would have been multiform: The influence of the hydrosphere would have been at a minimum and most living organisms would have been confined to small areas of open ocean if they existed at all, or possibly near hydrothermal vents. The atmosphere would have been very dry and nearly cloud–free.
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The Extreme Proterozoic: Geology, Geochemistry, and Climate

PrefaceGregory S. Jenkins, Mark A. S. McMenamin, Christopher McKay, and Linda Sohl vii

Introduction: The ProterozoicGregory S. Jenkins, Christopher McKay, and Mark A. S. McMenamin 1

Observations of Extreme Proterozoic Conditions

Paleomagnetic Constraints on Neoproterozoic ′Snowball Earth′ Continental ReconstructionsJoseph G. Meert and Trond. H. Torsvik 5

Geochemical Climate Proxies Applied to the Neoproterozoic Glacial Succession on the
Yangtze Platform, South ChinaNicole Dobrzinski, Heinrich Bah I burg, Harald Strauss, and Qirui Zhang 13

Formerly–Aragonite Seafloor Fans from Neoproterozoic Strata, Death Valley and Southeastern
Idaho, United States: Implications for "Cap Carbonate" Formation and Snowball EarthFrank A. Corsetti, Nathaniel J. Lorentz, and Sara B. Pruss 33

Modeling Extreme Proterozoic Conditions

Analysis of Carbon Cycle System During the Neoproterozoic: Implications for Snowball Earth EventsEiichi Tajika 45

Secular Changes in the Importance of Neritic Carbonate Deposition as a Control on the
Magnitude and Stability of Neoproterozoic Ice AgesAndy Ridgwell and Martin Kennedy 55

A Review of Neoproterozoic Climate Modeling StudiesGregory S. Jenkins 73

Global Tectonic Setting and Climate of the Late Neoproterozoic: A Climate–Geochemical Coupled StudyYannick Donnadieu, Gilles Ramstein, Yves Godderis, and Frederic Fluteau 79

Climate–Ice Sheet Simulations of Neoproterozoic Glaciation Before and After Collapse to Snowball EarthDavid Pollard and James F. Kasting 91

Climate Dynamics in Deep Time: Modeling the "Snowball Bifurcation" and Assessing the
Plausibility of its OccurrenceW. R. Peltier, L. Tarasov, G. Vettoretti, and L. R Solheim 107

Synthesis: Hypothesis and Processes That Explain Extreme Proterozoic Climate

Interpreting the Neoproterozoic Glacial Record: The Importance of TectonicsNicholas Eyles and Nicole Januszczak 125

Neoproterozoic Glaciation: Reconciling Low Paleolatitudes and the Geologic RecordGeorge E. Williams and Phillip W. Schmidt 145

Earth′s Earliest Extensive Glaciations: Tectonic Setting and Stratigraphic Context of
Paleoproterozoic Glaciogenic DepositsGrant M. Young 161

High Obliquity as an Alternative Hypothesis to Early and Late Proterozoic Extreme Climate ConditionsGregory S. Jenkins 183

Thin Ice on the Snowball EarthChristopher P. Mckay 193

Biological Aspects of Neoproterozoic Glaciation and its Implications for the Cambrian Explosion

Neoproterozoic Glaciations and the Fossil RecordShuhia Xiao 199

Climate, Paleoecology and Abrupt Change During the Late Proterozoic: A Consideration
of Causes and EffectsMark A. S. McMenamin 215

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Gregory S. Jenkins
Mark A. S. McMenami
Christopher P. McKay
Linda Sohl
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