Space Weather. Volume 125. Geophysical Monograph Series

  • ID: 2489270
  • Book
  • 440 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 125.

This volume provides a comprehensive overview of our current observational knowledge, theoretical understanding, and numerical capability with regard to the phenomena known as space weather. Space weather refers to conditions on the Sun and in the solar wind, magnetosphere, ionosphere, and thermosphere that can influence the performance and reliability of space–borne and ground–based technological systems, and can endanger human life or health. The rapid advance in these technologies has provided us with unprecedented capability and convenience, and we have come to rely on them more and more. Technology has reduced society′s risk to many kinds of natural disasters, but through its own vulnerability, it has actually increased society′s risk to space weather. Adverse conditions in the space environment can cause disruption of satellite operations, communications, navigation, and electric power distribution grids, leading to a variety of socioeconomic losses.

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PrefacePaul Song, Howard J. Singer, and George L. Siscoe ix

SECTION I: Introduction

The U. S. National Space Weather Program: A RetrospectiveR. M. Robinson and R. A. Behnke 1

Space Weather Effects on TechnologiesLouis J. Lanzerotti 11

Space Weather Forecasting: A Grand ChallengeH. J. Singer, G. R. Heckman, and J. W. Hirman 23

Space Weather: Lessons from the MeteorologistsRobert R McCoy 31

What We Must Know About Solar Particle Events to Reduce the Risk to AstronautsRon Turner 39

Living With a StarGeorge L. Withbroe 45

Space Weather: European Space Agency PerspectivesE. J. Daly and A. Hilgers 53

Space Weather: Japanese PerspectivesY. Kamide 59

Space Weather: Russian PerspectivesM. Panasyuk 65

SECTION II: Origin of Space Weather: The Sun and Its Influence

Solar Wind and Interplanetary Magnetic Field: A TutorialC. T. Russell 73

Space Weather and the Changing SunE. N. Parker 91

SEPs: Space Weather Hazard in Interplanetary SpaceDonald V. Reames 101

Origin and Properties of Solar Energetic Particles in Space5. W. Kahler 109

The Solar Sources of Geoeffective StructuresD. F. Webb, N. U. Crooker, S. P. Plunkett, and O. C. St. Cyr 123

Theory of Coronal Mass EjectionsJames A. Klimchuk 143

MHD Modeling of the Solar Corona and Inner Heliosphere: Comparison With ObservationsPete Riley, Jon Linker, Zoran Mikic, and Roberto Lionello 159

From Sun to Earth: Multiscale MHD Simulations of Space WeatherJamas I. Gombosi, Darren L. DeZeeuw, Clinton P. T. Groth, Kenneth G. Powell, C. Robert Clauer, and Paul Song 1 69

Visualizing CMEs and Predicting Geomagnetic Storms from Solar Magnetic FieldsYan Li, Janet G. Luhmann, J. Todd. Hoeksema, Xuepu Zhao, and C. NickArge 177

Prediction of Southward IMF BzJ. K. Chao and H. H. Chen 1 83

Specifying Geomagnetic Cutoffs for Solar Energetic ParticlesJohn W. Freeman and Seth Orloff 191

Status of Cycle 23 ForecastsDavid H. Hathaway, Robert M. Wilson, and Edwin J. Reichmann 195

Solar Activity Predicted with Artificial IntelligenceHenrik Lundstedt 201

The STEREO Space Weather BroadcastO. C. St. Cyr and J. M. Davila 205

SECTION III: Specification and Prediction of the Magnetosphere

70 Years of Magnetospheric ModelingG. L. Siscoe 211

MHD Simulation of Magnetospheric Transport at the MesoscaleW. W. White, J. A. Schoendorf, K. D. Siebert, N. C. Maynard, D. R. Weimer, G. L Wilson, B. U. O. Sonnerup, G. L. Siscoe, and G. M. Erickson 229

Modeling Extreme Compression of the Magnetosphere: Results From a Global MHD
Simulation of the May 4, 1998 EventJ. Berchem, M. El–Alaoui, and M. Ashour–Abdalla 241

Model Predictions of Magnetosheath ConditionsP. Song 249

Nowcasting and Forecasting the Magnetopause and Bow Shock Locations
Based on Empirical Models and Real–Time Solar Wind DataS. M. Petrinec 257

Modeling Inner Magnetospheric ElectrodynamicsF. R. Toffoletto, R. W. Spiro, R. A. Wolf, J. Birn, and M. Hesse 265

Empirical Magnetic Field Models for the Space Weather ProgramN. A. Tsyganenko 273

Dynamic Radiation Belt Modeling at Air Force Research LaboratoryJ. M. Albert, D. H. Brautigam, R. V Hilmer, and G. P. Ginet 281

Radiation Belt Electron Acceleration by ULF Wave Drift Resonance:
Simulation of 1997 and 1998 StormsMary K. Hudson, Scot R. Elkington, John G. Lyon, M. \A/iltberger, and Marc Lessard 289

Modeling the Transport of Energetic Particles in the Magnetosphere with SalammboD. Boscher and S. Bourdarie 297

The Search for Predictable Features of Relativistic Electron Events:
Results from the GEM Storms CampaignG. D. Reeves, K. L. McAdams, R. H. \A/. Friedel, and J. E. Cayton 305

Forecasting Kilovolt ElectronsR. A. Wolf, R. W. Spiro, T. W. Garner, and E R. Toffoletto 313

Specification of Energetic Magnetospheric ElectronsD. E Moorer and D. N. Baker 321

Predicting Geomagnetic Storms as a Space Weather ProjectSyun–lchiAkasofu 329

Predicting Geomagnetic Activity: The Ds^ IndexRobert L. McPherron and Paul O′Brien 339

Space Weather Effects on Power SystemsD. H. Boteler 347

Advanced Geomagnetic Storm Forecasting for the Electric Power IndustryJohn Kappenman 353

SECTION IV: Specification and Prediction of the Ionosphere and Thermosphere

Ionospheric Climatology and Weather Disturbances: A TutorialR. W. Schunk 359

On Forecasting Thermospheric and Ionospheric Disturbances in Space Weather EventsR. G. Roble 369

Geomagnetic Storm Simulation With a Coupled Magnetosphere–lonosphere–Thermosphere ModelJoachim Raeder, Yongli Wang, and Timothy J. Fuller–Rowell 377

Forecasting Ionospheric Electric Fields: An Interplanetary Coupling PerspectiveNelson C. Maynard and William J. Burke 385

Capturing the Storm–Time F–Region Ionospheric Response in an Empirical ModelT J. Fuller–Rowell, M. V. Codrescu, and E. A. Araujo–Pradere 393

Ionospheric Response for the Sept. 24–25, 1998 Magnetic Cloud EventR. M. Winglee, D. Chua, M. Brittnacher, and G. K. Parks 403

FAST Observations of Ion Outflow with Magnetic StormsJ. P. McFadden, Y. K. Tung, C. W. Carlson, R. J. Strangeway, E. Moebius, and L M. Kistler 413

Specification and Forecasting of Outages on Satellite Communication and Navigation SystemsS. Basu and K. M. Groves 423

New Systems for Space Based Monitoring of Ionospheric Irregularities
and Radio Wave ScintillationsP. A. Bernhardt, J. D. Huba, C. A. Selcher, K. F. Dymond, G. R. Carruthers, G. Bust, C. Rocken, and T L Beach  431

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Paul Song
Howard J. Singer
George L. Siscoe
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