Hydrothermal systems at oceanic spreading centers reflect the complex interactions among transport, cooling and crystallization of magma, fluid circulation in the crust, tectonic processes, water–rock interaction, and the utilization of hydrothermal fluids as a metabolic energy source by microbial and macro–biological ecosystems. The development of mathematical and numerical models that address these complex linkages is a fundamental part the RIDGE 2000 program that attempts to quantify and model the transfer of heat and chemicals from "mantle to microbes" at oceanic ridges.
This volume presents the first "state of the art" picture of model development in this context. The most outstanding feature of this volume is its emphasis on mathematical and numerical modeling of a broad array of hydrothermal processes associated with oceanic spreading centers. By examining the state of model development in one volume, both cross–fertilization of ideas and integration across the disparate disciplines that study seafloor hydrothermal systems is facilitated.
Students and scientists with an interest in oceanic spreading centers in general and more specifically in ridge hydrothermal processes will find this volume to be an up–to–date and indispensable resource.
PrefaceRobert P. Lowell, Jeffrey S. Seewald, Anna Metaxas, and Michael R. Perfit vii
Modeling Seafloor Hydrothermal Processes: Magma to Microbe An OverviewRobert P. Lowell, Jeffrey S. Seewald, Anna Metaxas, and Michael R. Perfit 1
Modeling Multiphase, Multicomponent Processes at Oceanic Spreading CentersRobert P. Lowell, Brendan W. Crowell, Kayla C. Lewis, and Lei Liu 15
The Supply of Heat to Mid–Ocean Ridges by Crystallization and Cooling of Mantle MeltsJohn Maclennan 45
Seismological Constraints on Magmatic and Hydrothermal Processes at RidgesMaya Tolstoy 75
Modeling the Hydrothermal Response to Earthquakes at Oceanic Spreading CentersPierre Ramondenc, Leonid N. Germanovich, and Robert P. Lowell 97
The Chemistry of Diffuse–Flow Vent Fluids on the Galapagos Rift (86°W): Temporal Variability and Subseafloor Phase Equilibria ControlsN. J. Pester, D.A. Butterfield, D. I. Foustoukos, K. K. Roe, K. Ding, T. M. Shank, and W. E. Seyfried Jr. 123
Hydrothermal Fluid Composition at Middle Valley, Northern Juan de Fuca Ridge: Temporal and Spatial VariabilityAnna Cruse, Jeffrey S. Seewald, Peter J. Saccocia, and Robert Zierenberg 145
Reactive Transport and Numerical Modeling of Seafloor Hydrothermal Systems: A ReviewPeter Alt–Epping and Larryn W. Diamond 167
Observational, Experimental and Theoretical Constraints on Carbon Cycling in Mid–Ocean Ridge Hydrothermal SystemsThomas M. McCollom 193
Modeling the Impact of Diffuse Vent Microorganisms Along Mid–Ocean Ridges and FlanksJulie A. Huber and James F. Holden 215
Magma–to–Microbe Networks in the Context of Sulfide Hosted Microbial EcosystemsMatthew O. Schrenk, James F. Holden, and John A. Baross 233
Processes and Interactions in Macrofaunal Assemblages at Hydrothermal Vents: A Modeling PerspectiveKatriona Shea, Anna Metaxas, Curtis R. Young, and Charles R. Fisher 259
The Role of Seafloor Hydrothermal Systems in the Evolution of Seawater Composition During the PhanerozoicLee R. Kump 275