Essential Readings in Light Metals. Cast Shop for Aluminum Production. Volume 3

  • ID: 2496188
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  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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ONE OF A FOUR–BOOK COLLECTION SPOTLIGHTING CLASSIC ARTICLES

Original research findings and reviews spanning all aspects of the science and technology of casting

Since 1971, The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society has published the Light Metals proceedings. Highlighting some of the most important findings and insights reported over the past four decades, this volume features the best original research papers and reviews on cast shop science and technology for aluminum production published in Light Metals from 1971 to 2011.

Papers have been divided into ten subject sections for ease of access. Each section has a brief introduction and a list of recommended articles for researchers interested in exploring each subject in greater depth.

Only 12 percent of the cast shop science and technology papers ever published in Light Metals were chosen for this volume. Selection was based on a rigorous review process. Among the papers, readers will find landmark original research findings and expert reviews summarizing current thinking on key topics at the time of publication.

From basic research to industry standards to advanced applications, the articles published in this volume collectively represent a complete overview of cast shop science and technology, supporting the work of students, researchers, and engineers around the world.

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Preface xv

Lead Editors xvii

Editorial Team xix

Part 1: Introduction

The Role of Casting Technology in the Development of New and Improved Fabricated Products 1W. Peterson

Part 2: Furnaces, Melting, Fluxing, and Alloying

Section Introduction 13

Optimal Fuel Control of a Casting Furnace 15R. Bui and R. Ouellet

Naand Ca Pick–up from Hall Bath in Ingot Furnaces 21D. De Young

Alloying by Injection of Mg in an Al Melt 28E. Myrbostad and K. Vends

Alloying of Molten Aluminium: Optimizing the Present and Preparing the Future 33C. Sztur and G. Hudault

Dissolution Mechanism for High Melting Point Transition Elements in Aluminum Melt 44Y. Lee and S. Houser

A Technical Perspective on Molten Aluminum Processing 51P. Waite

Melt Treatment Evolution and Perspectives 59P. Le Brun

Gas Fluxing of Molten Aluminum: An Overview 65G. Sigworth, E. Williams, and D. Chesonis

Removal of Alkali Metals from Aluminum 71E. Williams, R. McCarthy, S. Levy, and G. Sigworth

On the Kinetics of Removal of Sodium from Aluminum and Aluminum–Magnesium Alloys 80B. Kulunk and R. Guthrie

Removal of Lithium in Commercial Metal 93P. Achim and G. Dubé

Current Technologies for the Removal of Iron from Aluminum Alloys 101L. Zhang and L. Damoah

Settling of Inclusions in Holding Furnaces: Modeling and Experimental Results 107C. Sztur, F. Balestreri, J. Meyer, and B. Hannart

Settling Phenomena in Casting Furnaces: A Fundamental and Experimental Investigation 115J. Martin, G. Dubé, D. Frayce, andR. Guthrie

In–Line Salt Fluxing Process: The Solution to Chlorine Gas Utilization in Casthouses 126S. Leboeuf, C. Dupuis, B. Maltais, M. Thibault, and E. Smarason

Recommended Reading 133

Part 3: Oxidation and Dross Processing

Section Introduction 135

Oxidation of Liquid Aluminum–Magnesium Alloys 137M. Silva and D. Talbot

Metallurgy of Dross Formation on Al Melts 143S. Freti, J. Bornand, and K. Buxmann

Furnace Dross Its Formation and Recovery 150C. Moser

New Process of Direct Metal Recovery from Drosses in the Aluminum Casthouse 157G. Zahorka

Melt Loss Evaluation 165J. van Linden and H. Reavis

Molten Salt Flux Composition Effects in Aluminum Scrap Remelting 173J. van Linden and D. Stewart, Jr.

Recommended Reading 181

Part 4: Melt Quality: Degassing, Filtering, and Analysis

Section Introduction 183

Analysis and Thermodynamic Prediction of Hydrogen Solution in Solid and Liquid Multicomponent Aluminum Alloys 185P. Anyalebechi

A Radioscopie Technique to Observe Bubbles in Liquid Aluminum 201M. Bertherat, T. Odièvre, M. Allibert, and P. Le Brun

Molten Aluminium Purification 208T. Engh and G. Sigworth

Removal of Hydrogen from Molten Aluminium by Gas Purging 218T. Engh and T. Pedersen

Gas Fluxing of Molten Aluminum. Part 1: Hydrogen Removal 226G. Sigworth

Alcan Compact Degasser: A Trough–based Aluminum Treatment Process. Part I: Metallurgical Principles
and Performance 234P. Waite and R. Thiffault

Dynamic Vacuum Treatment of Molten Aluminium and Its Alloys 239A. Aarflot and F. Patak

Ultrasonic Degassing of Molten Aluminum under Reduced Pressure 246H. Xu, X. Jian, T. Meek, and Q. Han

Industrial Application of Open Pore Ceramic Foam for Molten Metal Filtration 251L. Gauckler, M. Waeber, C. Conti, and M. Jacob–Duliére

Deep Bed Filtration Theory Compared with Experiments 263T. Engh, B. Rasch, and E. Bathen

Efficiency of Industrial Filters for Molten Metal Treatment: Evaluation of a Filtration Process Model 271P. Netter and C. Conti

Experimental and Numerical Study of Ceramic Foam Filtration 285E. Laé, H. Duval, C. Rivière, P. Le Brun, and J. Gui Hot

The Influence of Grain Refiners on the Efficiency of Ceramic FoamFilters 291N. Towsey, W. Schneider, H. Krug, A. Hardman, and N. Keegan

Aluminum Cleanliness Monitoring: Methods and Applications in Process Development and Quality Control 296D. Doutre, B. Gariépy, J. Martin, and G. Dubé

Ultrasonic Technology for Measuring Molten Aluminum Quality 305T. Mansfield

In–line Treatment of Molten Aluminum 312L. Blayden and K. Brondyke

Effects of Grain Refining Additions to Aluminum Alloys 318R. Gennone, F. Coyle, and G. Farrior

Removal of Inclusions A Survey and Comparison of Principles 324F. Frisvold, T. Engh, S. Johansen, and T. Pedersen

The Impact of LiMCA Technology on the Optimization of Melt Cleanliness 332C. Dupuis and R. Dumont

Recommended Reading 339

Part 5: Structure: Grain Refinement, Modification, and Microsegregation

Section Introduction 341

Grain Refinement in Aluminum Alloys 343L. Mondolfo

Micro structure Control in Ingots of Aluminum Alloys with an Emphasis on Grain Refinement 354D. Granger

Studies of the Action of Grain–Refining Particles in Aluminum Alloys 366P. Schumacher and A. Greer

Heterogeneous Nucleation of an Al–Ti in Al–Ni–Si Alloys 375B. McKay, P. Cizek, P. Schumacher, and K O ′Reilly

Zr–Poisoning of Grain Refiner Particles Studied in Al–Ni–Zr Amorphous Alloys 381P. Schumacher, P. Cizek, and A. Bunn

Modelling of the Effectiveness of Al–Ti–B Refiners in Commercial Purity Aluminium 387A. Bunn, P. Evans, D. Bristow, and A. Greer

The Effect of Alloy Content on the Grain Refinement of Aluminium Alloys 393M. Easton and D. St John

A Comparison of the Behaviour of AlTiB and AlTiC Grain Refiners 400W. Schneider, M. Kearns, M. McGarry, and A. Whitehead

Design of Grain Refiners for Aluminium Alloys 409A. Tronche and A. Greer

On the Mechanism of Grain Refinement by Ultrasonic Melt Treatment in the Presence of Transition Metals 415D. Eskin, T. Atamanenko, L. Zhang, and L. Katgerman

Modification and Refinement of Cast Al–Si Alloys 420S. Lu and A. Hellawell

Modification of Silicon in Eutectic and Hyper–Eutectic Al–Si Alloys 425B. Heshmatpour

Strobloy The New Combined Grain Refiner and Modifier for Hypoeutectic AISi Foundry Alloys 433E. Bondhus and T. Sagstad

Factors Governing the Formation of Feathery Crystals in DC–cast Ingots 438L. Gullman and L. Johansson

Fir Tree Structures of 1000–and 5000–Series Aluminum Alloy Sheet Ingots 452T. Otani, T. Kato, K. Ar ai, and R. Otsuka

Growth Mechanisms of Intermetallic Phases in DC Cast AAlxxx Alloys 460X. Chen

A Thermodynamic Study of Metastable Al–Fe Phase Formation in Direct Chill (DC)–Cast Aluminum Alloys Ingots 466C. Aliravci, J. Gruzleski, and M. Pekgüleryüz

The Generation of AlmFe in Dilute Aluminium Alloys with Different Grain Refining Additions 475W. Meredith, A. Greer, P. Evans, and R. Hamerton

Effects of Cooling Rate and Grain Refining on Constituent Phase Particle Size in As–Cast 3004 Alloy 482P. Anyalebechi, T. Rouns, and R. Sanders, Jr.

Predicting Microstructure and Microsegregation in Multicomponent Aluminum Alloys 512X. Yan, L. Ding, S. Chen, F. Xie, M. Chu, and Y. Chang

Modelling of the Thermo–Physical and Physical Properties for Solidification of Al–Alloys 519N. Sounders, X. Li, A. Miodownik, and J. Schillé

Recommended Reading 525

Part 6: Direct–Chill Casting

Section Introduction 527

Recent Developments in Semi–Continuous Casting of Aluminum Alloy Billets and Slabs 529A. Nussbaum

DC Casting of Aluminium Alloys Past, Present and Future 534W. Schneider

Magnesium Direct Chill Casting: A Comparison with Aluminium 542P. Baker and P. McGlade

New Hot–top Continuous Casting Method Featuring Application of Air Pressure to Mold 550R. Mitamura, T. Ito, Y. Takahashi, and T. Hiraoka

The Variable Chill Depth Mould System 557R. Wilkins

New Casting Method for Improving Billet Quality 564J. Faunae, F. Wagstaff, and H. Shaw

Improvement of Billet Quality by Use of a Hot Top Mold with a Two Phase Lubrication 571W. Schneider and E. Lossack

Metallurgical Features of Sheet Ingot Cast by the Airslip Air–casting Process 577J. Ekenes and F. Wagstaff

High Speed DC Casting of AA–6063 Extrusion Ingot 584S. Nawata, M. Kubota, and K. Yokota

Designing Sheet Ingot Moulds to Produce Rectangular Ingots of the Desired Thickness and Width 591C. Weaver, L. Y enta, G. Morin, and P. Meslage

HDC Process for Small Diameter Ingot 598Y. Ishii

Development of a New Starting Block Shape for the DC Casting of Sheet Ingots, Part I: Experimental Results 605W. Schneider, E. Jensen, and B. Corrupt

NETCAST Shape Casting Technology: A Technological Breakthrough that Enhances the Cost Effectiveness
of Aluminum Forgings 612M. Anderson, R. Bruski, D. Groszkiewicz, and B. Wagstaff

Simultaneous Casting of Alloy Composites 619G. Binczewski and W. Kramer

Novelis Fusion : A Novel Process for the Future 628T. Bischoff L. Hudson, and R. Wagstaff

Detailed Modeling of a Metal Distributor by Means of a Combined Numerical and Physical Approach 633R. Kieft, J. van Oord, F. Frinking, D. Bal, and H. van Schoonevelt

The Effect of Process Parameters on the Metal Distribution for DC Sheet Ingot Casting 640M. Fortier, A. Larouche, X. Chen, and Y. Caron

Heat Transfer Measurements during DC Casting of Aluminium. Parti: Measurement Technique 646J. Bakken and T. Bergström

Heat Transfer Measurements during DC Casting of Aluminium. Part II: Results and Verification for Extrusion Ingots 653E. Jensen, S. Johansen, T. Bergström, and J. Bakken

The Measurement of Heat Flow within a DC Casting Mould 659A. Prasad, J. Taylor, and I. Bainbridge

Determination of the Thermal Boundary Conditions during Aluminum DC Casting from Experimental Data
Using Inverse Modeling 665I. Opstelten and J. Rabenberg

Advances for DC Ingot Casting: Part 2 – Heat Transfer and Casting Results 672G. Grealy, J. Davis, E. Jensen, P. Tonde I, and J. Moritz

Water Cooling in Direct Chill Casting: Part 1, Boiling Theory and Control 681J. Grandfield, A. Hoadley, and S. Instone

Impact of Water Heat Extraction and Casting Conditions on Ingot Thermal Response during DC Casting 690A. Larouche, Y. Caron, and D. Kocaefe

Effect of Water Quality and Water Type on the Heat Transfer in DC Casting 696L. Kiss, T. Meenken, A. Charette, Y. Lefebvre, and R. Lévesque

Recommended Reading 703

Part 7: Casting Defects and Their Control

Section Introduction 705

Practical Problems in Casting Aluminum DC Ingots 707R. Dieffenbach

Reduction of Ingot Bottom "Bowing and Bumping" in Large Sheet Ingot Casting 710F. Sergerie and N. Bryson

An Empirical Model to Explain Cross–Section Changes of DC Sheet Ingot during Casting 712C. Weaver

Mathematical Modelling of Butt Curl Deformation of Sheet Ingots. Comparison with Experimental Results
for Different Starter Block Shapes 720H. Fjaer and E. Jensen

The Mechanism of Pull–In during DC–Casting of Aluminium Sheet Ingots 729H. Fjaer and A. Hâkonsen

Coupled Stress, Thermal and Fluid Flow Modelling of the Start–up Phase of Aluminium Sheet Ingot Casting 737H. Fjaer, D. Mortensen, A. Hâkonsen, and E. Sorheim

Investigations About Starting Cracks in DC Casting of 6063 Type Billets. Parti: Experimental Results 743W. Schneider and E. Jensen

Investigations About Starting Cracks in DC Casting of 6063 Type Billets. Part II: Modelling Results 749E. Jensen and W. Schneider

Inverse Solidification A Theory of the Formation of the Surface on DC Cast Round Ingot 756J. McCubbin

Contribution to the Metallurgy of the Surfaces of Cast Aluminum 768K. Buxmann

Surface Formation on VDC Casting 783I. Bainbridge, J. Taylor, and A. Dahle

Wrinkling Phenomena to Explain Vertical Fold Defects in DC–Cast Al–Mg4.5 789J. Davis and P. Mendez

Study of Shell Zone Formation in Lithographic and Anodizing Quality Aluminium Alloys: Experimental and
Numerical Approach 805C. Brochu, A. Larouche, and R. Hark

Coupled Modelling of Air–Gap Formation and Surface Exudation during Extrusion Ingot DC–Casting 812D. Mortensen, B. Henriksen, M. M′Hamdi, and H. Fjaer

Macrosegregation Characteristics of Commercial Size Aluminum Alloy Ingot Cast by the Direct Chill Method 819M. Chu and J. Jacoby

Effects of Casting Practice on Macrosegregation and Microstructure of 2024 Alloy Billet 825R. Dorward and D. Beerntsen

Investigation in the Effects of the Casting Parameters on the Extent of Centerline Macrosegregation in DC Cast Sheet Ingots 831B. Gariepy and Y. Caron

Effect of Grain Refining on Defect Formation in DC Cast Al–Zn–Mg–Cu Alloy Billet 842R. Nadella, D. Eskin, and L. Katgerman

The Coupling of Macrosegregation with Grain Nucleation, Growth and Motion in DC Cast Aluminum Alloy Ingots 848M. Zaloznik, A. Kumar, H. Combeau, M. Bedel, P. Jarry, and E. Waz

Thermal Stresses in Continuous DC Casting of Al Alloys: Discussion of Hot Tearing Mechanisms 854J. Moriceau

Modelling of Fluid Flow and Stress Phenomena during DC Casting of Aluminium Alloys 862S. Flood, L. Katgerman, A. Langille, S. Rogers, and C. Reed

Thermomechanical Effects during Direct Chill and Electromagnetic Casting of Aluminum Alloys. Part I: Experimental

Investigation 867J. Drezet and M. Plata

Thermomechanical Effects during Direct Chill and Electromagnetic Casting of Aluminum Alloys. Part II: Numerical Simulation 877J. Drezet, M. Rappaz, and Y. Krähenbühl

On the Mechanism of Surface Cracking in DC Cast 7xxx and 6xxx Extrusion Ingot Alloys 887S. Benum, D. Mortensen, H. Fjaer, H. Overlie, and O. Reiso

Hot Tearing in Aluminium–Copper Alloys 895D. Viano, D. StJohn, J. Grandfield, and C. Caceres

Measurement of the Onset of Hot Cracking in DC Cast Billets 900B. Commet, P. Delaire, J. Rabenberg, and J. Storm

A Mathematical Model for Hot Cracking of Aluminium Alloys during DC Casting 907L. Katgerman

Prediction of Hot Tears in DC–Cast Aluminum Billets 912J. Drezet, and M. Rappaz

As–Cast Mechanical Properties of High Strength Aluminum Alloy 919J. Wan, H. Lu, K. Chang, and J. Harris

Residual Stress Measurements for Studying Ingot Cracking 925S. Levy, R. Zinkham, and J. Carson

Numerical Simulation of DC Casting; Interpreting the Results of a Thermo–Mechanical Model 933W. Boender, A. Burghardt, and E. van Klaveren, and J. Rabenberg

Cold Cracking during Direct–Chill Casting 939D. Eskin, M. Lalpoor, and L. Katgerman

Recommended Reading 945

Part 8: Other Casting Methods

Section Introduction 947

The Mechanical and Metallurgical Characteristics of Twin–Belt Cast Aluminum Strip Using Current
Hazelett Technology 949W. Szczypiorski and R. Szczypiorski

The Hunter Continuous Strip Casting Process 959W. Stephens and G. Vassily

CREM A New Casting Process. Part II Industrial Aspects 966J. Riquet and J. Meyer

Twin Roll Casting of Aluminium: The Occurrence of Structure Inhomogeneities and Defects in As Cast Strip 972H. Westengen and K. Nes

Centre line Segregation in Twin Roll Cast Aluminum Alloy Slab 981L Jin, L. Morris, and J. Hunt

Thin Gauge Twin–Roll Casting, Process Capabilities and Product Quality 989O. Daaland, A. Espedal, M. Nedreberg, and L Alvestad

New Electromagnetic Rheocasters for the Production of Thixotropic Aluminum Alloy Slurries 997C. Vives

Remelt Ingot Production Technology 1003J. Grandfield

Recommended Reading 1011

Part 9: Heat Treatment

Section Introduction 1013

Investigating the Alpha Transformation A Solid–State Phase Change of Dispersed Intermetallic Particles from an Al6(Fe,Mn) Phase to an a–Al–(Fe,Mn)–Si Phase 1015D. Alexander, R. Hamerton, H. Cama, and A. Greer

Precipitation of Dispersoids in DC–Cast AA3103 Alloy during Heat Treatment 1021Y. Li and L. Arnberg

Modelling the Metallurgical Reactions during Homogenisation of an AA3103 Alloy 1028A. Hâkonsen, D. Mortensen, S. Benum, T. Pettersen, and T. Furu

Influence of Homogenizing on the Properties of Cast Aluminium Products 1036J. Langerweger

Recommended Reading 1043

Part 10: Safety

Section Introduction 1045

Personal Protective Clothing: From Fundamental to a Global Strategy of Protection in the Casthouse Environment 1047P. Wallach

Why Does Molten Aluminum Explode at Underwater or Wet Surfaces? 1057L. Nelson, M. Eatough, and K. Guay

Investigation of Coatings Which Prevent Molten Aluminum/Water Explosions 1068D. Leon, R. Richter, and T. Levendusky

Hazards Associated with the Use of Bone Ash in Contact with Molten Aluminum 1074D. Doutre

Cause and Prevention of Explosions Involving Hottop Casting of Aluminum Extrusion Ingot 1078J. Ekenes and T. Saether

Cause and Prevention of Explosions Involving DC Casting of Aluminum Sheet Ingot 1085R. Richter and J. Ekenes

The Role of Automation in Explosion Prevention in Sheet Ingot Casting 1091D. Bernard

Hazards in Adding Scrap Copper to Molten Aluminum 1097W. Peterson

Recommended Reading 1101

Author Index 1103

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JOHN F. GRANDFIELD, PhD, is Director of Grandfield Technology Pty Ltd, a consulting and technology firm, and Adjunct Professor in the High Temperature Processing Group at Swinburne University of Technology. Dr. Grandfield has thirty years of experience in light metals research and technology, with an emphasis on smelting, continuous casting, and metal refining. In addition, he has conducted plant benchmarking audits and technology reviews, optimized existing technology, managed technology transfer, and developed and commercialized new technologies.

DMITRY G. ESKIN, PhD, is a Professor of Solidification Research at Brunel University (UK). Internationally recognized for his work in physical metallurgy and solidification processing of light alloys, Dr. Eskin holds several patents and is the author or coauthor of five monographs and more than 160 scientific papers. Among his publications are Advanced Aluminum Alloys Containing Scandium, Multicomponent Phase Diagrams: Applications for Commercial Aluminum Alloys, and Physical Metallurgy of Direct Chill Casting of Aluminum Alloys.

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