Practical Guide to Latex Technology

  • ID: 2498188
  • Book
  • 110 Pages
  • Smithers Information Ltd
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Latex-based technology forms a sizable fraction of natural and synthetic rubber technology and an introduction to the important technologies is beneficial to all practicing technical personnel. This book offers a condensed practical guidance on the technologies used for the production of important latex products.

The book begins with a short history of natural rubber latex, formation in the tree and the tapping, storage and conversion of latex to marketable forms. It discusses preservation and concentration of natural rubber latex and the most widely used latex compounding ingredients. Dipping and casting techniques are discussed, as well as the technology related to foams, threads and adhesives. In addition, the book offers an introduction to important lattices such as styrene-co-butadiene rubber, acrylonitrile-co-butadiene, polychloroprene, polyvinyl chloride, and so on. Fully illustrated throughout, with photographs from actual production sites, this practical guide is ideal for academics, research and development managers, students of polymer technology and all those working in the latex industry.
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
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Preface

1 An Introduction to Natural Rubber Latex
1.1 History
1.2 Tapping
1.2.1 Tapping Notations
1.2.1.1 Tapping Method
1.2.1.2 Panel Notation
1.2.1.3 Yield Stimulated Tapping Notations
1.3 Latex Collection and Storage
1.3.1 Latex Collection
1.3.2 Collection of Field Coagulum
1.4 Conversion to Marketable Forms
1.4.1 Ribbed Sheets
1.4.2 Crepe Rubber
1.4.3 Field Coagulum Crepe
1.4.4 Technically Specified Rubber
References

2 Natural Rubber Latex: Preservation and Concentration
2.1 Preservation
2.1.1 Chemical Composition of Fresh Latex
2.1.2 Spontaneous Coagulation and Putrefaction
2.1.3 Preservatives
2.1.3.1 Ammonia as a Preservative
2.1.3.2 Low-ammonia Preservative Systems
2.1.4 Processing into Preserved Field Latex
2.1.4.1 Handling of Ammonia
2.1.4.2 Dosage of Preservatives
2.1.4.3 Sludge Removal
2.2 Concentration
2.2.1 Creaming
2.2.1.1 Principle
2.2.1.2 Creaming Agents
2.2.1.3 Creaming Process
2.2.1.4 Factors Affecting Creaming Efficiency
2.2.1.5 Advantages and Disadvantages
2.2.2 Centrifuging
2.2.2.1 Principle
2.2.2.2 Concentrating Process
2.2.2.3 Efficiency of the Process
2.2.3 Skim Latex and Recovery of Skim Rubber
2.3 Quality Standards
2.3.1 Requirements
2.4 Packing and Despatch
References

3 Latex Compounding Ingredients
3.1 Compounding Ingredients
3.1.1 Curing Agent: Sulfur
3.1.2 Accelerators
3.1.3 Antioxidants
3.1.4 Fillers and Pigments
3.1.4.1 Kaolinite Clays
3.1.4.2 Calcium Carbonate
3.1.4.3 Titanium Dioxide
3.1.4.4 Lithopone
3.1.4.5 Barytes
3.1.4.6 Carbon Black
3.1.5 Stabilisers
3.1.6 Thickening and Wetting Agents
3.1.7 Other Compounding Ingredients
3.2 Preparation of Aqueous Dispersions and Emulsions
3.2.1 Dispersion of Water Insoluble Solids
3.2.2 Evaluation of the Quality of Dispersion
3.3 Preparation of Emulsions
References

4 Dipping and Casting
4.1 Dipping
4.1.1 Types of Dipping Processes
4.1.2 Glove Production
4.1.2.1 Batch Dipping Process
4.1.2.2 Continuous Dipping Process
4.1.3 The Manufacturing Process
4.1.3.1 Material Inputs
4.1.3.2 Ceramic Formers/Moulds
4.1.3.3 Latex Concentrate
4.1.4 Rubber Chemicals
4.1.4.1 Packing Materials
4.1.4.2 Compounding
4.1.4.3 Coagulant Dipping
4.1.4.4 Latex Dipping
4.1.4.5 Beading
4.1.4.6 Leaching
4.1.4.7 Vulcanisation
4.1.4.8 Post Leaching
4.1.4.9 Slurry Dip
4.1.4.10 Stripping
4.1.4.11 Tumbling
4.1.4.12 Quality Control
4.1.4.13 Glove Packing
4.1.4.14 Glove Sterilisation
4.1.4.15 Finished Gloves
4.1.5 Glove Properties
4.1.6 Defects and Remedies
4.2 Latex Casting
4.2.1 Latex Casting using Plaster Mould
4.2.2 Latex Casting using a Metal Mould
References
Additional Reading

5 Latex Foam, Thread and Adhesives
5.1 Latex Foam Rubber
5.1.1 The Dunlop Process
5.1.2 The Talalay Process
5.1.3 Testing of Latex Foam
5.1.3.1 Indentation Hardness Index
5.1.3.2 Measurement of Dimensions
5.1.3.3 Flexing Test
5.1.3.4 Ageing
5.1.3.5 Compression Set
5.2 Latex Rubber Thread
5.2.1 Production Process
5.2.1.1 Activation and Maturation of Compound
5.2.1.2 Extrusion
5.2.1.3 Application of Talcum Powder
5.2.1.4 Ribbon Forming
5.2.1.5 Silicone Coated Thread Production
5.2.1.6 Curing of the Thread
5.2.1.7 Cooling Drums
5.2.1.8 Festooning Machine
5.2.1.9 Final Inspection
5.2.2 Technical Specifications of Latex Extruded Rubber Thread
5.2.2.1 Special Properties
5.2.3 Testing of Latex Thread
5.3 Latex Adhesives
5.3.1 Formulatory Ingredients for Latex-based Adhesives
5.3.1.1 Polymers
5.3.1.2 Adhesion Modifiers
5.3.1.3 Plasticisers
5.3.1.4 Crosslinking Agents
5.3.1.5 Fillers
5.3.1.6 Tackifiers
5.3.1.7 Other Additives
5.3.2 Latex-based Adhesives for Paper
5.3.3 Testing the Quality of the Adhesive
5.3.3.1 Testing Devices
References

6 Synthetic Lattices
6.1 Styrene Butadiene Latices
6.2 Nitrile Latices
6.3 Polychloroprene Latices
6.4 Polyvinyl Chloride Lattices
References

Abbreviations

Index
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