With contributions from an internationally-renowned group of experts, this book uses a multidisciplinary approach to review recent developments in the field of smart sensor systems, covering important system and design aspects. It examines topics over the whole range of sensor technology from the theory and constraints of basic elements, physics and electronics, up to the level of application-orientated issues.
Developed as a complementary volume to ‘Smart Sensor Systems’ (Wiley 2008), which introduces the basics of smart sensor systems, this volume focuses on emerging sensing technologies and applications, including:
- State-of-the-art techniques for designing smart sensors and smart sensor systems, including measurement techniques at system level, such as dynamic error correction, calibration, self-calibration and trimming.
- Circuit design for sensor systems, such as the design of precision instrumentation amplifiers.
- Impedance sensors, and the associated measurement techniques and electronics, that measure electrical characteristics to derive physical and biomedical parameters, such as blood viscosity or growth of micro-organisms.
- Complete sensor systems-on-a-chip, such as CMOS optical imagers and microarrays for DNA detection, and the associated circuit and micro-fabrication techniques.
- Vibratory gyroscopes and the associated electronics, employing mechanical and electrical signal amplification to enable low-power angular-rate sensing.
- Implantable smart sensors for neural interfacing in bio-medical applications.
- Smart combinations of energy harvesters and energy-storage devices for autonomous wireless sensors.
Smart Sensor Systems: Emerging Technologies and Applications will greatly benefit final-year undergraduate and postgraduate students in the areas of electrical, mechanical and chemical engineering, and physics. Professional engineers and researchers in the microelectronics industry, including microsystem developers, will also find this a thorough and useful volume.
About the Editors xi
List of Contributors xiii
1 Smart Sensor Design 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Smart Sensors 2
1.3 A Smart Temperature Sensor 5
1.4 A Smart Wind Sensor 8
1.5 A Smart Hall Sensor 11
1.6 Conclusions 14
2 Calibration and Self-Calibration of Smart Sensors 17
2.1 Introduction 17
2.2 Calibration of Smart Sensors 18
2.3 Self-Calibration 27
2.4 Summary and Future Trends 38
3 Precision Instrumentation Amplifiers 42
3.1 Introduction 42
3.2 Applications of Instrumentation Amplifiers 43
3.3 Three-OpAmp Instrumentation Amplifiers 44
3.4 Current-Feedback Instrumentation Amplifiers 46
3.5 Auto-Zero OpAmps and InstAmps 48
3.6 Chopper OpAmps and InstAmps 52
3.7 Chopper-Stabilized OpAmps and InstAmps 56
3.8 Chopper-Stabilized and AZ Chopper OpAmps and InstAmps 62
3.9 Summary and Future Directions 65
4 Dedicated Impedance-Sensor Systems 68
Gerard Meijer, Xiujun Li, Blagoy Iliev, Gheorghe Pop, Zu-Yao Chang, Stoyan Nihtianov, Zhichao Tan, Ali Heidari and Michiel Pertijs
4.1 Introduction 68
4.2 Capacitive-Sensor Interfaces Employing Square-Wave Excitation Signals 71
4.3 Dedicated Measurement Systems: Detection of Micro-Organisms 78
4.4 Dedicated Measurement Systems: Water-Content Measurements 83
4.5 Dedicated Measurement Systems: A Characterization System for Blood Impedance 89
4.6 Conclusions 97
5 Low-Power Vibratory Gyroscope Readout 101
Chinwuba Ezekwe and Bernhard Boser
5.1 Introduction 101
5.2 Power-Efficient Coriolis Sensing 101
5.3 Mode Matching 108
5.4 Force Feedback 119
5.5 Experimental Prototype 133
5.6 Summary 142
6 Introduction to CMOS-Based DNA Microarrays 145
6.1 Introduction 145
6.2 Basic Operation Principle and Application of DNA Microarrays 146
6.3 Functionalization 149
6.4 CMOS Integration 150
6.5 Electrochemical Readout Techniques 153
6.6 Further Readout Techniques 165
6.7 Remarks on Packaging and Assembly 169
6.8 Concluding Remarks and Outlook 169
7 CMOS Image Sensors 173
7.1 Impact of CMOS Scaling on Image Sensors 173
7.2 CMOS Pixel Architectures 175
7.3 Photon Shot Noise 180
7.4 Analog-to-Digital Converters for CMOS Image Sensors 181
7.5 Light Sensitivity 184
7.6 Dynamic Range 186
7.7 Global Shutter 187
7.8 Conclusion 188
8 Exploring Smart Sensors for Neural Interfacing 190
Tim Denison, Peng Cong and Pedram Afshar
8.1 Introduction 190
8.2 Technical Considerations for Designing a Dynamic Neural Control System 192
8.3 Predicate Therapy Devices Using Smart-Sensors in a Dynamic Control Framework: Lessons Derived from Closed-Loop Cardiac Pacemakers 195
8.4 The Application of "Indirect" Smart Sensing Methods: A Case Study of Posture Responsive Spinal Cord Stimulation for Chronic Pain 198
8.5 Direct Sensing of Neural States: A Case Study in Smart Sensors for Measurement of Neural States and Enablement of Closed-Loop Neural Systems 207
8.6 Future Trends and Opportunities for Smart Sensing in the Nervous System 231
9 Micropower Generation: Principles and Applications 237
Ruud Vullers, Ziyang Wang, Michael Renaud, Hubregt Visser, Jos Oudenhoven and Valer Pop
9.1 Introduction 237
9.2 Energy Storage Systems 240
9.3 Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting 246
9.4 Vibration and Motion Energy Harvesting 253
9.5 Far-Field RF Energy Harvesting 262
9.6 Photovoltaic 268
9.7 Summary and Future Trends 268
Gerard Meijer Delft University of Technology, SensArt, Delft, The Netherlands.
Michiel Pertijs Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.