Composite Materials in Piping Applications: Design, Analysis and Optimization of Subsea and Onshore Pipelines from FRP Materials

  • ID: 2541638
  • Book
  • 412 Pages
  • DEStech Publications, Inc
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Applying materials science theory and engineering to an important infrastructure use, this book explains the design, analysis, and performance of composite materials in oil, gas, water and waste water piping. Part one presents critical composites calculations with a special emphasis on failure analysis, dynamic responses due to pulsed and sudden loading, as well as pressure vibration. Part two offers theoretical tools for evaluating the design and lifetime performance of above ground, underground and underwater FRP piping. The text furnishes design information for pipe and its supports, damage analysis prediction and corrosion, as well as in-service temperature and pressure gradients to carry out loading calculations. Optimization methods are presented for cost analysis. Pre- and in-service quality control and maintenance are discussed. Book is accompanied by a CD-ROM containing algorithms for pipe design and analysis using Mathematica software, which includes equations for calculating joint design, hanger widths, expansion loops, as well as safe depths for pipes under highways and railroads.


- Mechanical design methodologies, including stress and stability analysis for FRP pipelines
- Flow-pipe interaction modeling to prevent flow-induced vibration
- Wave propagation modeling under hydraulic hammer conditions
- Models for sizing joints, expansion loops, safe depth
- Creep and fatigue behavior and damage analysis for lifetime prediction
- Optimization of material cost.


- Is the dynamic behavior in flow-induced vibrations in FRP pipeline superior to similar behavior in steel pipe?
- How does fiber orientation influence the mechanical behavior of pipe in installation and service?
- Are the values of critical loads that cause buckling higher in FRP pipelines?
- How do the strength and specific weight of FRPs influence cost?


- Complete and unified account of composite materials in oil, gas & water piping
- Critical calculations for pipe design and above-ground supports under varied loading conditions
- Theoretical tools enable evaluation of design parameters, costs and performance over time
- Includes CD-ROM containing algorithms for pipe design and analysis for use with Mathematica software
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
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1. Mechanical Behavior of Fiber Reinforced Composite Materials
1.1 Mechanical Behavior of Laminae
1.1.1 Generalized Hooke's law
1.1.2 Effects of free thermal strains
1.1.3 Effects of free moisture strains
1.1.4 Plane stress constitutive relations
1.1.5 Coordinate transformation of stress and strain components
1.1.6 Transformation of engineering properties
1.1.7 Free thermal and free moisture strains in the global coordinate system
1.2 Mechanical Behavior of Laminates
1.2.1 Classical lamination theory
1.2.2 Laminate nomenclature
1.2.3 The Kirchhoff Assumption
1.2.4 Laminate strains
1.2.5 Laminate stresses
1.2.6 Laminate stiffness matrix
1.2.7 Classification of laminates
1.3 The Tsai–Wu Failure Criterion

2. Classification, Properties and Production Technology of FRP Materials
2.1 The Composite Matrix Material
2.1.1 Thermosets
2.1.2 Thermoplastics
2.2 Fiber Materials
2.2.1 Glasses
2.2.2 Carbon fibers
2.2.3 Synthetic fibers
2.3 Production Technologies for FRP Composite Pipes
2.3.1 Filament winding
2.3.2 Fiber placement process

3. Mechanical Design of Composite Pipelines
3.1 Types of Loading Cases
3.1.1 Installation loads
3.1.2 Operation loads
3.2 Pure Bending
3.2.1 Failure analysis
3.2.2 Buckling model
3.3 External Pressure
3.3.1 Failure analysis
3.3.2 Buckling model
3.4 Combination of Bending and External Pressure
3.4.1 Failure analysis
3.4.2 Buckling model
3.5 Axial Tension
3.5.1 Failure analysis
3.6 Combination of Bending and Axial Tension
3.6.1 Failure analysis
3.6.2 Buckling model
3.7 Combination of External Pressure and Axial Tension
3.7.1 Failure analysis
3.8 Torsion
3.8.1 Failure analysis
3.8.2 Buckling model

4. Dynamic Stability of Composite Pipelines
4.1 Free Vibration of Composite Pipes
4.1.1 Structural characteristics of composite pipes
4.1.2 Forces and bending moments acting on a composite pipe element
4.2 Accelerations of the Fluid and Pipe Elements
4.3 Equation of Motion
4.3.1 Solution of equation of motion
4.3.2 Types of instability
4.4 Transfer Matrices Method (TMM)
4.5 Estimation of Critical Velocity for Composite Pipes Conveying Fluid
4.5.1 Cantilever pipe
4.5.2 Fixed-fixed pipe
4.5.3 Pinned-pinned pipe
4.5.4 Fixed-pinned pipe
4.6 Effect of Temperature (Thermal Load)
4.7 Effect of Additional Mass
4.7.1 Transfer matrix of the segment 1-2 (pipe)
4.7.2 Transfer matrix of the segment 2-3 (collar-pipe)
4.7.3 Global transfer matrix
4.8 Effects of an Elastic Foundation
4.9 Effect of Additional Supports
4.9.1 Example
4.10 Estimation of Critical Flow Velocity in Relation to Divergence
4.10.1 Elastic foundation effect
4.10.2 Thermal load and elastic foundation effects
4.10.3 Fixed-fixed pipe
4.10.4 Pinned-pinned pipe
4.10.5 Fixed-pinned pipe
4.11 Hydraulic Hammer
4.11.1 Shock pressure in a branched pipe
4.12 Wave Propagation Due to Hydraulic Hammer
4.12.1 Example

5. Connection and Supports of Composite Pipelines
5.1 Joining of Composite Pipelines
5.1.1 Approximate mechanical model for axial loading
5.1.2 Approximate mechanical model for bending
5.2 Above-Ground Pipes
5.2.1 Maximum spacing between supports
5.2.2 Minimum hanger widths
5.2.3 Sizing of expansion loops
5.3 Underground Pipelines

6. Creep Design of Piping Applications Using Composite Materials
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Creep Damage Accumulation Mechanisms in Composite Materials
6.3 Short and Long-Term Static Failure of Composite
6.3.1 Damage modeling
6.3.2 Creep rupture
6.3.3 An example of preliminary design for the long-term
6.4 Lifetime of Composites Pipes Under Cyclic Loading
6.5 Applicable Standards
6.5.1 Identification and comparison of main standards
6.5.2 Long-term qualification tests of four different types of GRP
6.6 Practical Design: A Case Study
6.7 Conclusions
6.8 Acknowledgements

7. Flow Capacity of Composite Pipelines
7.1 Gas Transmission
7.1.1 Estimation of gas flow rate
7.2 Liquid Transmission
7.2.1 Flow capacity for laminar liquid flow
7.2.2 Flow capacity for turbulent flow
7.3 Multiphase Flow
7.3.1 Multiphase flow regimes for inclined pipelines

8. Optimization of Material Cost
8.1 Fiber Orientation and Loading Forces
8.1.1 Optimum fiber orientation for the combination of axial tension and external pressure
8.1.2 Optimum fiber orientation for the combination of bending and axial tension
8.1.3 Optimum fiber orientation for the combination of bending and external pressure

9. Quality Control of Composite Pipe Systems
9.1 Test Methods and Material Characterization
9.1.1 Thermal analysis DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry)
9.1.2 Measurement of residual stresses
9.1.3 Creep strain and creep rupture tests
9.1.4 Impact testing
9.1.5 Fatigue testing
9.2 International Standards for Composite Pipes
9.3 Detection of Defects and Structural Health Monitoring
9.3.1 Piezoelectric techniques
9.3.2 Optical fiber-based techniques
9.3.3 Ultrasonic testing

10. Case Studies
10.1 Axial Tension
10.1.1 Results of failure model for axial tension
10.2 Pure Bending
10.2.1 Results of failure model for pure bending
10.2.2 Results of buckling model for pure bending
10.3 External Pressure
10.3.1 Results of failure model for external pressure
10.3.2 Results of buckling model for external pressure
10.4 Torsion
10.4.1 Results of failure model for torsion
10.5 Butt Joints of Multi-layered Filament-Wound Pipes
10.5.1 E-glass epoxy material
10.5.2 S-glass/epoxy material
10.6 Hanger Width
10.6.1 E-glass/epoxy material
10.6.2 S-glass-epoxy material
10.7 Spaces between Supports
10.7.1 E-glass/epoxy material
10.7.2 Material: S-glass/epoxy material
10.8 Installation Depth for Underground Pipelines vs. the Vertical Load F
10.8.1 E-glass-epoxy materials
10.8.2 S-glass/epoxy material


About the CD-ROM
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
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Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown