Innovative Graphene Technologies: Developments & Characterisation, Volume 1

  • ID: 2571055
  • Book
  • 534 Pages
  • Smithers Information Ltd
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Graphene as a nanomaterial has a unique place among existing high performance materials. Being a member of the carbon family, the expectation from this material is high. Several thousand research papers have already explored the possible applications of graphene; however, its commercial application has yet to be realised.

Such a large volume of research publications have appeared on graphene that the basic important information is hard to excavate. In order to collect vital information on graphene, this book is compiled in two volumes. Volume 1 is specifically meant for beginners who want to understand the science and technology associated with the nanomaterial.

The first objective of this book is to furnish detailed information on the manufacturing or syntheses of graphene and related materials in the lab without the need for special equipment. The chapters are written systematically so that it is easy to understand the science, engineering and technology behind the material.

The second objective is to deliver information on the different techniques used to characterise graphene and related materials. The content of the book is carefully designed so that readers can easily understand the new technologies being used to investigate graphene. The book is written for a large readership, including scholars and researchers from diverse backgrounds such as chemistry, physics, materials science and engineering. It can be used as a textbook for both undergraduate and graduate students, and also as a review or reference book by researchers in the fields of materials science, engineering and nanotechnology.
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1 Developments in Graphene Technologies and Major Steps towards
Real World Applications

2 Preparation and Characterisation of Graphene Synthesised by Low-temperature Exfoliation and Reduction of Graphite Oxide
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Experimental
2.2.1 Materials
2.2.2 Preparation of Graphene
2.2.3 Preparation of Poly(methyl methacrylate) Composites
2.2.4 Dispersion of Graphene in Solvents and the Concentration Determination
2.2.5 Characterisations
2.3 Results and Discussion
2.3.1 Characterisation of Graphene Synthesised by Low-temperature Exfoliation and Reduction
2.3.3 Conductivity of Graphene-135 Film
2.3.4 Synthesis of Graphene by Low-temperature Exfoliation and Reduction in Ambient Atmosphere
2.4 Conclusion

3 Photoreduction of Graphite Oxide
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Spectral Properties of Graphite Oxide
3.2.1 Experimental Conditions
Innovative Graphene Technologies: Developments and Characterisation Volume xii
3.2.2 Structure of Graphite Oxide Nanosheet
3.2.3 Infrared Spectra
3.2.4 Optical Absorption Spectrum of Graphite Oxide
3.2.4.1 Visible and Ultraviolet Range
3.2.4.2 Near-infrared Range
3.2.5 Graphite Oxide and Amorphous Carbon
3.3 Photochemistry of Graphite Oxide
3.3.1 Experimental Conditions
3.3.2 Photochemistry of Graphite Oxide Films
3.3.3 Quantum Efficiency
3.3.4 Photolysis at 77 K
3.3.4.1 Electron Spin Resonance Method
3.3.4.2 X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy
3.3.5 Raman Spectra
3.3.6 Electrical Properties under Graphite Oxide Photolysis
3.3.7 Mass Spectrometry
3.3.7.1 Thermal Reduction
3.3.7.2 Photoreduction
3.3.7.3 Mass-spectra Summary
3.3.8 Molecular Aspects of Graphite Oxide Photolysis
3.4 The Mechanism of Graphite Oxide Photoreduction
3.4.1 Molecular Mechanism of Photodissociation
3.4.2 OH Groups Dissociation
3.4.3 CO u CO Groups Dissociation
3.4.4 Model of Graphite Oxide Photoreduction
3.5 Conclusion

4 Graphene-reinforced Polymer Nanocomposites in Various Challenges
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Chemical Modification of Graphene
4.2.1 Covalent Modification of Graphene
4.2.2 Noncovalent Modification of Graphene
4.3 Properties of Graphene-reinforced Polymer Nanocomposites
4.3.1 Electrical Properties
4.3.2 Thermal Properties
4.3.3 Mechanical Properties
4.3.4 Barrier Properties
4.4 Fabrications and Applications of Graphene-reinforced Polymer Nanocomposites

5 Functionalisation of Graphene and Its Derivatives
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Chemical Functionalisation Strategies
5.2.1 Covalent Modification Strategies
5.2.2 Noncovalent Modification Strategies
5.3 Future Prospects

6 Innovative Strategies to Incorporate Graphene in Polymer Matrices: Advantages and Drawbacks from an Applications Viewpoint
6.1 Introduction: Graphene as Polymer Reinforcement
6.1.1 Methods of Production
6.1.2 Reactivity of Carbon Nanostructures
6.2 Graphene Derivatives, Graphite Oxide, Reduced Graphite Oxide
6.3 Classical Graphene-based Polymer Nanocomposites
6.4 Covalent Incorporation of Graphene into Polymer Matrices
6.4.1 Grafting-from Approaches
6.4.1.1 Controlled/Living Radical Polymerisation
6.4.1.2 Other Approaches
6.4.2 Grafting-to Approaches
6.4.2.1 Esterification/Amidation Reactions
6.4.2.2 Crosslinking Reactions
Contents
Innovative Graphene Technologies: Developments and Characterisation Volume xiv
6.4.2.3 Nitrene Chemistry
6.4.2.4 Click Chemistry
6.4.2.5 Coupling Growing Polymeric Radicals
6.4.2.6 Other Approaches
6.5 Brief Comparison of Properties
6.6 Conclusions and Perspectives

7 Metal Nanoparticles/Graphene-based Composite Materials: Synthesis and Applications
7.1 Introduction
7.1.1 Advantage of Graphene over Other Graphitic Materials
7.2 Preparation of Graphene
7.2.1 Micromechanical Exfoliation
7.2.2 Longitudinal Unzipping of Carbon Nanotubes
7.2.3 Chemical Vapour Deposition Method
7.2.4 Preparation of Graphene by Dispersion/Exfoliation of Graphite
7.2.5 Preparation of Reduced Graphene Oxide/Reduction of Graphite
7.3 Synthesis of Graphene Oxide Sheets
7.4 Reduction of Graphene Oxide
7.5 Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles-Graphene Oxide/Reduced Graphene Composite Materials
7.6 In situ Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles-Graphene Nanocomposites
7.6.1 Reduction in Mixed Solution
7.6.2 Growth of Metal Nanoparticles on Graphene Oxide and Reduced Graphene Oxide Without Using Reducing Agent
7.6.3 Electrochemical Deposition of Metal Nanoparticles onto Graphene Sheets
7.6.4 Photochemical and Photothermal Techniques
7.6.5 Preparation of Metal Nanoparticles by Sacrificing other Metal Ions
7.6.6 Ultrasonication
7.6.7 Microwave Assisted Synthesis
7.7 Ex situ Method
7.8 Applications of Metal Nanoparticles-Graphene Oxide/Graphene Nanocomposites
7.9 Catalysis
7.10 Electrochemical Applications
7.11 Sensor Applications
7.11.1 Gas Sensors
7.11.2 Biosensors
7.11.3 Surface-enhanced Raman Scattering Applications
7.12 Antimicrobial Activity
7.13 Future Prospects

8 Ferromagnetic Graphene: A Promising Material for Room-temperature Spintronics
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Theory of Ferromagnetism in Graphene-based Materials
8.2.1 Graphene with Point Defects and/or Topological Line-defects
8.2.2 Graphene Nanostructures
8.2.3 Hydrogenated Graphene
8.2.4 Pseudo-spin Ferromagnetism in Bilayer Graphene
8.2.5 Graphene-based Magnetic Nanocomposites
8.3 Charge and Spin Transport in Graphene
8.4 Spintronic Applications of Ferromagnetic Graphene
9 Collective Modes in Graphene/Metal Interfaces Probed by Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy

9.1 Introduction
Contents
Innovative Graphene Technologies: Developments and Characterisation Volume xvi
9.2 Experimental Methods
9.2.1 Ultra-high Vacuum Chamber
9.2.2 The Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy Technique
9.2.3 High-resolution Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy Spectrometer
9.3 Phonon Modes of Epitaxial Graphene
9.3.1 Structure of Graphene on Pt(111)
9.3.2 Phonon Dispersion
9.3.3 Kohn Anomalies
9.3.4 Highlights
9.4 Electronic Collective Excitations in Epitaxial Graphene
9.4.1 General Consideration on Plasmons in Graphene
9.4.2 Evidence for Acoustic-like Plasmons
9.4.3 Dispersion and Damping Processes of p Plasmon
9.5 Conclusions

10 Photochemical and Photocatalytic Activity of Graphene Materials
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Graphene as Quencher
10.3 Photoactivity of Graphene
10.4 Dye Sensitisation of Graphenes
10.5 Hybrid Inorganic Graphene Materials as Photocatalysts
10.6 Concluding Remarks and Future Prospects

11 Wave Propagation in Graphene Structures
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Flexural Wave Propagation in Monolayer Graphene Sheets Modelled as Nanoplates
11.2.1 Nonlocal Governing Partial Differential Equations for Monolayer Graphene Sheet
11.2.2 Terahertz Flexural Wave Dispersion Analysis in a Monolayer Graphene
11.2.3 Computation of Wavenumbers and Wave Speeds
11.2.4 Computation of Cut-off Frequency
11.2.5 Computation of Escape Frequency
11.2.6 Numerical Results and Discussion
11.3 Modelling of Graphene Layer on Silicon Substrate
11.3.1 Hybrid Lattice Arrangement
11.3.2 Potential Energy, Equilibrium and Force Constants
11.4 Nonlocal Scaling Theory Applied to Single Graphene Layer on Silicon Substrate
11.4.1 Nonlocal Governing Partial Differential Equations of Motion for the Hybrid System
11.4.2 Ultrasonic Wave Dispersion Analysis
11.4.2.1 Computation of Wavenumbers
11.4.2.2 Computation of Frequency Band Gap
11.4.2.3 Computation of Wave Speeds
11.4.3 Numerical Experiments, Results and Discussion
11.5 Nonlocal Scaling Theory Applied to the Single Graphene Layer on Elastic Polymer Substrate
11.5.1 Nonlocal Governing Equations for Monolayer Graphene Embedded in Polymer Matrix
11.5.2 Ultrasonic Flexural Wave Dispersion Characteristics of a Monolayer Graphene Embedded in Polymer Matrix
11.5.2.1 Computation Wavenumbers and Wave Speeds

11.5.2.2 Computation of Cut-off Frequency
11.5.3 Numerical Experiments, Results and Discussion
11.6 Conclusions
12 Raman Spectroscopy of Graphene
12.1 Introduction
12.1.1 Methods to Obtain Graphene
12.1.2 Crystal Structure of Graphene
Contents
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Innovative Graphene Technologies: Developments and Characterisation Volume
xviii
12.1.2.1 Phonon Dispersions of Graphene
12.2 Raman Spectroscopy of Graphene and Graphene Layers

12.2.1 Raman Spectra of Graphene Layers
12.2.2 Raman Spectra of Folded Monolayer Graphene
12.2.3 The Low-frequency E
Mode in Graphene Layers
12.2.4 Polarised Raman Scattering of Monolayer and
2g
Bilayer Graphene

12.3 Raman D Band and Disorder in Graphene
12.4 Raman Spectra of Graphene under Uniaxial Strain
12.5 T
emperature-dependent Raman Study of Graphene
12.6 Conclusions
Abbreviations

Index
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