Marine Conservation. Science, Policy, and Management

  • ID: 2616884
  • Book
  • 384 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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This new textbook of marine conservation takes a whole–systems approach, covering major advances in marine ecosystem understanding and providing a guide for marine conservation practice. Its premise is that conservation must be informed by the natural histories of organisms together with the hierarchy of scale–related linkages and ecosystem processes. The reader is first introduced to the broad range of overlapping issues and the conservation mechanisms that have been devised to achieve marine conservation goals. Attention is called to emergent and unexpected phenomena that are rapidly changing coastal and marine systems, for example, climate change, ocean acidification, dead zones, and loss of biodiversity, that challenge the resilience of coastal–ocean systems, and cause problems in governance and human wellbeing. Next follow chapters on marine ecosystem science and the natural histories of marine organisms, which provide a basic background for achieving consideration of conservation goals. Seven international case studies are presented by scientists that are directly involved in coastal and marine conservation in action. Each study illustrates a central marine conservation issue or issues in the context of its own biogeographic and social setting. Finally, a synthesis chapter looks to the future, encouraging innovative thinking about how coastal and marine conservation can be transformed from traditional, fragmented, protection and management of the past to the ecosystem–based approach, intertwined in a social–ecological system of the future. Overall, this book is an attempt to provide students and conservation practitioners with a framework for thoughtful, critical thinking in order to incite innovation in the 21st century.
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Contributors, ix

Preface, xii

About the companion website, xiv

1 IN PURSUIT OF MARINE CONSERVATION, 1

1.1 The emergence of modern marine conservation, 1

1.2 Defining "marine conservation", 4

1.3 Marine conservation s scope, 4

1.4 Adapting marine conservation to the 21st century, 5

2 MARINE CONSERVATION ISSUES, 7

2.1 Igniting marine conservation concern, 7

2.2 Primary issues: loss of marine biodiversity, 7

2.3 Secondary issues: human activities, 13

2.4 Tertiary issues: emergent and unintended consequences, 30

2.5 The challenge for the 21st century, 35

3 MARINE CONSERVATION MECHANISMS, 43

3.1 The toolkit, 43

3.2 Biological conservation, 43

3.3 Spatially explicit conservation, 48

3.4 Governance: policy, strategy, tactics, 50

3.5 Policy instruments for marine conservation, 54

3.6 Management concepts, 65

3.7 Agents for conservation, 68

3.8 Conclusion, 70

4 MARINE SYSTEMS: THE BASE FOR CONSERVATION, 74

4.1 A systems approach, 74

4.2 Dynamic planetary forces, 74

4.3 Major ocean structures and conditions, 78

4.4 Planetary cycles, 81

4.5 Major planetary interfaces, 82

4.6 The dynamic coastal realm, 86

4.7 The coastal realm: an ecosystem of global importance, 92

4.8 The ecosystem concept, 97

4.9 Ecosystem base for conservation, 99

5 NATURAL HISTORY OF MARINE ORGANISMS, 105

5.1 What is natural history?, 105

5.2 Darwinian evolution, 105

5.3 Diversity of marine life, 106

5.4 Life history, 112

5.5 Biological associations, 123

5.6 Biogeographic patterns in space and time, 126

5.7 Biotic functional diversity, 127

5.8 "Seascape" as an organizing principle, 131

5.9 Natural history: the basis for conservation, 132

6 CHESAPEAKE BAY: ESTUARINE RESTORATION WITH AN ENVIRONMENTAL DEBT, 137

6.1 The great shellfish bay, 137

6.2 Ecological linkages to natural wealth, 137

6.3 Eastern oyster: quintessential estuarine species, 151

6.4 From resource abundance to ecosystem change, 154

6.5 Bay restoration: chartering a course, 163

6.6 People shall judge, 165

7 BERING SEA SEALS AND WALRUSES: RESPONSES TO ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE, 171G. Carleton Ray, Gary L. Hufford, Thomas R. Loughlin and Igor Krupnik

7.1 A short history of dramatic change, 171

7.2 Biophysical setting, 172

7.3 Marine mammals of the southeastern Bering Sea, 174

7.4 Ice–dependent pinnipeds of the northern Bering Sea, 179

7.5 Do large marine mammals matter?, 186

7.6 The conflict arena, 191

7.7 Cultural factors: subsistence hunting, traditional knowledge, and community well–being, 194

7.8 Are Beringian pinnipeds and the Bering Sea ecosystem at risk?, 197

8 THE BAHAMAS: CONSERVATION FOR A TROPICAL ISLAND NATION, 200

8.1 A nation of islands, 200

8.2 Biophysical and social setting, 200

8.3 Conservation issues, 207

8.4 Governance for sustainability, 222

8.5 Island system at a crossroads, 230

9 THE ISLES OF SCILLY: SUSTAINING BIODIVERSITY, 234Richard M. Warwick

9.1 Setting the scene, 234

9.2 Physical and biogeographic setting, 234

9.3 Measuring and measures of biodiversity, 237

9.4 Sustaining biodiversity from possible threats, 253

9.5 Conservation legislation, mechanisms, and voluntary actions, 256

9.6 The conservation status of Scilly, 260

10 GWAII HAANAS: FROM CONFLICT TO COOPERATIVE MANAGEMENT, 262N. A. Sloan

10.1 Nation–to–nation pursuit of land–sea conservation, 262

10.2 Natural heritage, 263

10.3 Cultural and commercial heritage, 272

10.4 Integrating land–sea conservation, 278

10.5 Crucible for ecosystem–based management, 284

11 SOUTH AFRICA: COASTAL–MARINE CONSERVATION AND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN A DYNAMIC SOCIO–POLITICAL ENVIRONMENT, 288Barry Clark and Allan Heydorn

11.1 A challenge for governance, 288

11.2 South Africa s coastal realm: physical, biotic, and human setting, 289

11.3 Major conservation issues of South African coasts, 294

11.4 Coastal resource management: past and present, 303

11.5 In pursuit of the Kogelberg Biosphere Reserve, 306

11.6 The future of coastal management in South Africa, 311

12 SPECIES–DRIVEN CONSERVATION OF PATAGONIAN SEASCAPES, 315Claudio Campagna, Valeria Falabella, and Victoria Zavattieri

12.1 Darwin′s Patagonia, 315

12.2 A conservation dilemma, 316

12.3 Oceanographic and biogeographic settings, 319

12.4 Conservation setting: the status of a non–pristine ocean, 322

12.5 Seascape species: a first approach to setting conservation priorities, 323

12.6 From seascape spaces to important foraging areas, 324

12.7 The concept of "Large Ocean Reserves", 326

12.8 A first step towards a Patagonian Sea LOR: candidate areas for conservation, 331

12.9 Making slow progress, 335

References, 336

Suggested readings, 337

13 FROM BEING TO BECOMING: A FUTURE VISION, 339

13.1 The new normal, 339

13.2 From being . . . , 339

13.3 . . . to becoming, 340

13.4 Emerging concepts for marine conservation, 344

13.5 Look to the future, 353

References, 353

Species index, 357

Subject index, 361

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Marine Conservationis a valuable contribution to the conservation literature. The authors successfully argue that a holistic conceptual understanding of social, legal, and political issues, as well as science, is necessary for successful management of marine and coastal resources. During a period in history when issues such as climate change, overfishing, and marine pollution are becoming substantial public concerns, this volume provides a very accessible summary of the current state of marine conservation issues.   (The Quarterly Review of Biology, 1 October 2015)

This is critical reading for anyone interested in the marine environment.  Summing Up: Essential.  All library collections.   (Choice, 1 October 2014)

This thorough, accessible, scholarly and lavishly illustrated text book with diverse contributions from many experienced scientists and practitioners will provide a solid underpinning for future careers in conservation as well as informing the public, holding in turn the possibility of future success in living sustainably with the marine environment.   (The News Journal of the International Society for Reef Studies, 1 August 2014)

This is a truly remarkable book that I suspect no one else would have had the breadth of knowledge and experience to put together. In itself it will be a major contribution to the cause of marine conservation that needs to be on the desks of all those active in the field today including politicians and policy makers as well as scientists. This book is surely destined to become a classic work on the subject, and will prove of immense value to both practitioners and students, something that will be aided by an accompanying website from which the fine and instructive illustrations can be download as PDFs. The large format, extensive use of colour, and modest price make it particularly attractive. It is without doubt one of the most impressive works across the entire spectrum of biodiversity and conservation to have crossed my desk during the last ten years.   (David L. Hawksworth, Biodiversity and Conservation, 24, 1553–1566 (2015), 1 October 2015)

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