universities ensure that the nation’s intellectual capacities and opportunities are fully realized. The authors of this volume consider diversity broadly from multiple perspectives, from race and ethnicity to institutional type, academic discipline, and national origin. Our intent is to demonstrate how diversity operates through these venues and definitions, and our hope is to stimulate a conversation about a key aspect of American higher
EDITORS’ NOTES 1
Karri A. Holley, Joretta Joseph
1. Increasing the Visibility of Women of Color in Academic Science and Engineering: Professional Society Data 7
Lisa M. Frehill, Rachel Ivie
Professional societies collect a wealth of data on underrepresented scholars in specific disciplines that can be used to understand minority experiences throughout different stages of academia.
2. From Graduate School to the STEM Workforce: An Entropic Approach to Career Identity Development for STEM Women of Color 23
Kelly Mack, Claudia Rankins, Kamilah Woodson
Career development programs for graduate students should acknowledge the multiple and often conflicting demands placed on underrepresented scholars.
3. Motivating Latina Doctoral Students in STEM Disciplines 35
Elsa C. Ruiz
Latina students who enter higher education and aspire to graduate degrees encounter numerous obstacles along the academic pipeline that ultimately shape their graduate school perspectives.
4. The Challenges of First–Generation Doctoral Students 43
Susan K. Gardner
Students who are the first in their families to graduate from college have significant challenges and yet comprise a significant percentage of the number of awarded doctorates in the United States.
5. Family–Friendly Policies for Doctoral Students 55
Doctoral students can face unique obstacles in terms of balancing the demands of a graduate program with personal obligations.
6. The Impact of Historically Black Colleges and Universities on Doctoral Students 67
Historically Black colleges and universities have long served as an important source for minority undergraduates who later go on to receive a doctoral degree.
7. The Experiences of Minority Doctoral Students at Elite Research Institutions 77
Minority doctoral students at elite and highly competitive private research universities encounter distinctive challenges that can impact persistence, time to degree, and professional outcomes.
8. Contributions of Foreign–Born Faculty to Doctoral Education and Research 89
Foreign–born faculty play an important role in American doctoral education, contributing to the processes of internationalization and global collaboration.
9. How Diversity Influences Knowledge, Identity, and Doctoral Education 99
Karri A. Holley
Diversity contributes to the development of an academic identity as well as the production of knowledge, both essential components of doctoral education.