Heterogeneous Networks in LTE–Advanced

  • ID: 2674291
  • Book
  • 296 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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A comprehensive summary of theoretical and practical developments in LTE Heterogeneous Networks

Essential reading for engineers and practitioners in the wireless industry, this book provides a comprehensive overview of small–cell–based heterogeneous networks within the framework of LTE–Advanced. It begins with a look at the heterogeneous networks presently in use, and considers developments included in Release 10 11 for improving the performance of heterogeneous networks, such as time domain inter–cell interference coordination (eICIC and FeICIC), carrier aggregation and enhancements in control signalling (ePDCCH). The book provides multiple case studies explaining network design optimization of present and future heterogeneous network deployments.

The book also covers base station coordination technology (CoMP), included in Release 11, by which multiple base stations can jointly serve users in a network. It discusses the related signal processing, scheduling, and signaling aspects. The book concludes by comprehensively summarizing the latest advances for heterogeneous networks under LTE Release 12, the state of the art in 3GPP standardization. Topics include dynamic switching of small cells, new carrier types with reduced control signaling, dynamic reconfiguration of TDD–LTE, joint configuration of TDD and FDD via carrier aggregation, and finally advanced MIMO signal processing with three–dimensional beamforming. 

This book was written by industry experts working at the cutting edge of technological development, all of whom are active members in 3GPP standardization proceedings, well placed to give an excellent view on this topic including valuable background and design rationale, enabling up–to–date coverage of current developments.

The accompanying website includes MatLab code for simulating heterogeneous networks, LTE channel models, and References to 3GPP specifications, contributions, and updates on recent standardization activities (<a href="[external URL]
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About the Authors xi

Foreword xiii

Preface xv

Acknowledgements xvii

List of Acronyms xix

1 An Introduction to Heterogeneous Networks 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Heterogeneous Network Deployments 3

1.2.1 Distributed Antenna Systems 3

1.2.2 Public Access Picocells/Metrocells 4

1.2.3 Consumer–Grade Femtocells 4

1.2.4 WiFi Systems 5

1.3 Features of Heterogeneous Networks 5

1.3.1 Association and Load Balancing 5

1.3.2 Interference Management 6

1.3.3 Self–Organizing Networks 6

1.3.4 Mobility Management 7

1.4 Evolution of Cellular Technology and Standards 7

1.4.1 3GPP Standardization Process 9

References 10

Part I OVERVIEW

2 Fundamentals of LTE 15

2.1 Introduction 15

2.2 LTE Core Network 17

2.2.1 Control Plane 18

2.2.2 User Plane 19

2.2.3 Practical Implementations of the Core Network 19

2.3 LTE Radio Access Network 20

2.3.1 Control Plane 20

2.3.2 User Plane 23

2.4 Connectivity Among eNodeBs: The X2 Interface 24

2.4.1 Load– and Interference–Related Information 26

2.4.2 Handover–Related Information 26

2.5 Technologies in LTE 27

2.5.1 Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing 27

2.5.2 Multiple Antenna Communications 36

References 42

3 LTE Signal Structure and Physical Channels 45

3.1 Introduction 45

3.2 LTE Signal Structure 45

3.3 Introduction to LTE Physical Channels and Reference Signals 48

3.4 Resource Block Assignment 51

3.5 Downlink Physical Channels 54

3.5.1 Physical Broadcast Channel (PBCH) 55

3.5.2 Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH) 57

3.5.3 Physical Multicast Channel (PMCH) 58

3.5.4 Physical Control Format Indicator Channel (PCFICH) 58

3.5.5 Physical Hybrid ARQ Indicator Channel (PHICH) 59

3.5.6 Physical Downlink Control Channel (PDCCH) 60

3.6 Uplink Physical Channels 67

3.6.1 Physical Uplink Shared Channel (PUSCH) 67

3.6.2 Physical Uplink Control Channel (PUCCH) 68

3.6.3 Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH) 70

References 71

4 Physical Layer Signal Processing in LTE 73

4.1 Introduction 73

4.2 Downlink Synchronization Signals 73

4.2.1 Primary Synchronization Signal 74

4.2.2 Secondary Synchronization Signal 76

4.3 Reference Signals 77

4.3.1 Downlink Reference Signals 77

4.3.2 Uplink Reference Signals 84

4.4 Channel Estimation and Feedback 85

4.4.1 Basics of Link Adaptation 85

4.4.2 Feedback for MIMO OFDM Channels 88

4.4.3 New Features in LTE–Advanced 92

4.5 Design Paradigm of LTE Signaling 94

4.6 Scheduling and Resource Allocation 94

4.6.1 Scheduling Algorithms 96

4.6.2 Inter–eNodeB Coordination for Resource Allocation in LTE 98

References 100

Part II INTER–CELL INTERFERENCE COORDINATION

5 Release 10 Enhanced ICIC 103

5.1 Introduction 103

5.2 Typical Deployment Scenarios 103

5.2.1 Macro Pico Deployment Scenario 104

5.2.2 Macro Femto Deployment Scenario 107

5.3 Time Domain Techniques 110

5.3.1 Almost Blank Subframe 110

5.3.2 ABS Use Cases 113

5.3.3 UE Measurement and Reporting 116

5.3.4 Backhaul Support 118

5.3.5 Simulation Results 119

5.4 Power Control Techniques 123

5.4.1 Target Scenario 123

5.4.2 Power Control Schemes 124

5.4.3 Results from Realistic Deployments 125

5.5 Carrier Aggregation–Based eICIC 127

References 130

6 Release 11 Further Enhanced ICIC: Transceiver Processing 133

6.1 Introduction 133

6.2 Typical Deployment Scenarios 133

6.3 Techniques for Mitigating CRS Interference 136

6.3.1 Receiver–Based Techniques 136

6.3.2 Transmitter–Based Techniques 140

6.4 Weak Cell Detection 142

6.5 Non–Zero–Power ABS 144

References 147

7 Release 11 Further Enhanced ICIC: Remaining Topics 149

7.1 Carrier–Based Interference Coordination 149

7.1.1 Operational Carrier Selection 150

7.1.2 Primary and Secondary Cell Selection 153

7.2 Enhanced PDCCH for Interference Coordination 154

References 159

Part III COORDINATED MULTI–POINT TRANSMISSION RECEPTION

8 Downlink CoMP: Signal Processing 163

8.1 Introduction 163

8.2 CoMP Scenarios in 3GPP 164

8.2.1 Homogeneous Networks with Intra–Site CoMP 164

8.2.2 Homogeneous Networks with High–Power RRHs 165

8.2.3 Heterogeneous Networks with Low–Power RRHs with Cell IDs Different from the Macro 165

8.2.4 Heterogeneous Networks with Low–Power RRHs with Cell IDs the Same as the Macro 166

8.3 CoMP Sets 167

8.3.1 RRM Measurement Set/CoMP Resource Management Set 167

8.3.2 CoMP Measurement Set 168

8.3.3 CoMP Cooperating Set 169

8.4 CoMP Transmission in 3GPP 169

8.4.1 Coordinated Scheduling/Beamforming 169

8.4.2 Dynamic Point Selection 172

8.4.3 Joint Transmission 177

8.5 Comparison of Different CoMP Categories 180

References 182

9 Downlink CoMP: Standardization Impact 185

9.1 Introduction 185

9.2 Modification of Reference Signals 185

9.2.1 Modifications in CSI–RS 185

9.2.2 Modifications in DMRS 186

9.3 CSI Processes 189

9.3.1 UE Processing Complexity and CSI Reference Resources 191

9.3.2 Inheritance and Reference Processes 192

9.4 PDSCH Rate Matching 193

9.5 Quasi–Co–Location of Antenna Ports 195

9.5.1 Quasi–Co–Location Between the Same Antenna Ports 197

9.5.2 Quasi–Co–Location Between Different Antenna Ports 198

9.6 New Transmission Mode and DCI Format 200

9.7 Backhaul Support for CoMP 201

9.8 Summary 203

References 203

Part IV UPCOMING TECHNOLOGIES

10 Dense Small Cell Deployments 207

10.1 Introduction 207

10.2 Evolution of Small Cells 207

10.2.1 Deployment Scenarios 209

10.3 Efficient Operation of Small Cells 212

10.3.1 Dual Connectivity 214

10.3.2 ICIC Mechanism 216

10.3.3 Small Cell Discovery 220

10.4 Control Signaling Enhancement 223

10.4.1 Multi–Subframe Scheduling 223

10.4.2 Cross–Subframe Scheduling 224

10.5 Reference Signal Overhead Reduction 225

10.5.1 Downlink DMRS 225

10.5.2 Uplink DMRS 227

References 228

11 TD–LTE Enhancements for Small Cells 231

11.1 Enhancements for Dynamic TDD 231

11.1.1 TDD UL/DL Reconfiguration Scenarios in 3GPP 232

11.1.2 Interference Mitigation Schemes 234

11.2 FDD–TDD Joint Operation 239

11.2.1 Deployment Scenarios 240

11.2.2 Issues and Potential Solutions 241

References 243

12 Full Dimension MIMO 245

12.1 Introduction 245

12.2 Antenna Systems Architecture: Passive and Active 245

12.3 Antenna Patterns 248

12.3.1 Passive Antenna Element Pattern 248

12.3.2 Active Antenna Systems 250

12.3.3 AAS with Additional Mechanical Tilt 253

12.3.4 Effect of Multipath Fading Channels 253

12.4 FD–MIMO Deployment Scenarios 254

12.4.1 UE–Specific FD–MIMO 254

12.4.2 Cell–Specific FD–MIMO 255

12.4.3 System–Specific FD–MIMO 255

12.5 Conclusion 256

References 256

13 Future Trends in Heterogeneous Networks 257

13.1 Summary 257

13.2 Small Cells and Cloud RAN 258

13.3 Small Cells, Millimeter Wave Communications and Massive MIMO 259

13.4 Small Cells and Big Data 260

13.5 Concluding Remarks 260

References 260

Index 263

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Joydeep Acharya
Long Gao
Sudhanshu Gaur
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