Biomass-based Biocomposites

  • ID: 2682784
  • Book
  • 386 Pages
  • Smithers Information Ltd
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Green polymer materials from biomass-based natural resources are of paramount importance in a range of applications, from biomedicine to biocomposites. Indeed, during the last few years there has been increasing demand for green biocomposites obtained from renewable and sustainable biomass-based resources.

Plants, grasses, straws, agriculture residues, algae, water plants etc. are among one of the most promising and the most abundant bio-based resources of biopolymers on earth and they are an indispensable component in biocomposites. One of the important features of biomass-based materials is that they can be designated and tailored to meet different requirements depending upon the application. Renewability, low cost, eco-friendliness, ease of processing, non-abrasiveness and relevant mechanical as well as physico-chemical properties are among the most important advantages of using biomass-based materials for the development of green biocomposites.

The prime aim of this book is to give an overview on different kinds of biomass-based biocomposites for a range of applications, from biocomposites to biomedicine. This book is unique in the sense that it deals exclusively with biomass-based biocomposites that are procured from the biopolymers found in nature. In addition, it covers novel topics related to the synthesis, properties, characterization and diverse applications of different biomass-based biocomposites including nanocomposites. Some of the main features are:

- An overview of the applications of biomass-based biocomposites in different fields to provide researchers/students with a thorough insight into the various systems.

- An up-to-date working reference on biomass-based biocomposites, including state-of-the-art techniques and developments in the field. Although the commercial applications of these biocomposites are in their infancy, these materials have a huge commercial potential. In setting out the next generation of advances in eco-friendly biomass-based biocomposites, this book opens the way for further developments in the field.

- A review of the wealth of research on new biomass-based polymers, together with their applications.

Biomass-based Biocomposites will be a standard reference book for biocomposites engineers and all those studying and researching in this important area, as well as those in the automotive industry. Professionals in academia and industry will appreciate the multidisciplinary nature of this comprehensive and practical reference book.
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1 Biomass-based Biocomposites: A Perspective on the Future
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Fibre Reinforcements
1.2.1 Lignocellulosic Materials
1.3 Applications of Biomass-based Composites
1.4 Summary

2 Development and Applications of Biocomposites from Renewable Resources
2.1 International Year of Natural Fibres
2.2 Types of Natural Fibre
2.3 Jute Fibre
2.3.1 Background
2.3.2 Nature of the Fibre
2.3.3 Advantages of Jute and Other Lignocellulosic Fibres
2.3.4 Disadvantages of Jute and Other Lignocellulosic Fibres
2.3.5 Morphology and Structure of Jute Fibre
2.3.6 Composition of Jute Fibre
2.4 Glass Fibre
2.4.1 Background
2.4.2 Comparison with Jute Fibre
2.5 Chemical Modification of Lignocellulosic Fibres
2.5.1 Acetals
2.5.2 Esters
2.5.3 Chemical Modification to Improve Dimensional Stability
2.5.4 Modification of Fibre-matrix Interaction
2.6 Natural Fibre Composites
2.6.1 Background
2.6.2 Thermoplastic versus Thermoset Polymer Matrix
2.6.3 Natural Fibre Composites as Wood Substitutes
2.6.4 Variables Influencing the Properties of Polymer Composites
2.6.4.1 Aspect Ratio of the Fibre or Filler
2.6.4.2 Polymer-fibre Interface and Interphase
2.6.4.3 Alignment or Distribution of the Reinforcement
2.6.4.4 Loading and Processing Techniques
2.6.4.5 Wetting, Adhesion and Dispersion
2.7 Short Natural Fibre-reinforced Thermoplastic Composites
2.7.1 Background
2.7.2 Preparation of Fibres
2.7.3 Compounding of Fibres
2.7.4 Moulding
2.7.5 Properties of Jute Fibre-reinforced Polypropylene Composites
2.7.5.1 Fibres and Other Reagents Used
2.7.5.2 Specific Gravity
2.7.5.3 Water Absorption
2.7.5.4 Tensile Behaviour
2.7.5.5 Flexural Behaviour
2.7.5.6 Impact Behaviour
2.7.5.7 Tensile Energy Absorption
2.7.5.8 Dynamic Mechanical Study
2.7.5.9 Correlation of Mechanical Properties with other Factors
2.7.5.10 Conclusions
2.8 Long Natural Fibre-reinforced Thermosetting Composite Boards and Moulded Items
2.8.1 Choice of Thermosetting Resin
2.8.2 Compounding of the Resin Solution
2.8.3 Impregnation of Fibre
2.8.4 Moulding
2.8.5 Characteristic Properties

3 Cellulose-based Composite Systems for Biomedical Applications
3.1 Cellulose-based Composites
3.1.1 Biocomposites
3.1.2 Cellulose
3.1.2.1 Sources of Cellulose as a Raw Material
3.1.2.2 Structure
3.1.2.3 Cellulose Derivatives
3.2 Applications of Cellulose-based Composites
3.2.1 Medical Applications
3.3 Conclusions

4 Primary and Secondary Processing of Biocomposites
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Primary Processing of Biocomposites: Challenges
4.3 Processing Techniques for Biocomposites
4.3.1 Hand Lay-up Method
4.3.2 Compression Moulding
4.3.3 Extrusion and Injection Moulding Processes
4.3.4 Resin Transfer Moulding
4.3.5 Prepregging of Biocomposites
4.3.6 Pultrusion
4.3.7 Sheet Moulding Compounds
4.4 Applications of Biocomposites
4.5 Secondary Processing of Biocomposites
4.5.1 The Need for Secondary Processing
4.5.2 Drilling of Biocomposites
4.5.2.1 Input parameters
4.5.2.1.1 Cutting Speed and Feed Rate
4.5.2.1.2 Selection of Drill Bit
4.5.2.2 Output Parameters
4.5.2.2.1 Drilling Forces
4.5.2.2.2 Drilling-induced Damage
4.6 Concluding Remarks

5 Composites of Thermosetting Polymers Reinforced with Natural Fibres
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Natural Fibres
5.3 Composites Containing Short Natural Fibres
5.4 Thermosetting Polymers Reinforced with Natural Fibres
5.4.1 Coconut Fibre-reinforced Polyester Resin
5.4.2 Sugarcane Bagasse Fibre-reinforced Polyester Resin
5.4.3 Banana Pseudostem Fibre-reinforced Polyester Resin

6 The Potential Use of Biomass as Reinforcement in Biocomposites
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Experimental
6.2.1 Materials and Methods
6.2.2 Fabrication of Biomass-based Biocomposites
6.2.3 Mechanical Characterisation of Biomass-based Biocomposites
6.2.4 Morphological and Thermal Behaviour of Biomass-based Biocomposites
6.3 Results and Discucssion
6.3.1 Mechanical Properties of Saccaharum Cilliare Fibre-reinforced Bicomposites
6.3.2 Morphological and Thermal Characterisation of the Biocomposites
6.4 Conclusions

7 Recent Progress in Polymer Natural Fibre Composites Made from Recycled Plastics
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Background on Natural Fibres
7.3 Fibre Markets
7.3.1 Classification by Origin
7.3.2 Classification by Biological Features
7.4 Introduction to Recycled Plastics and Waste Flow Analysis
7.5 Natural Fibre Composites made with Recycled Polystyrene and Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene
7.6 Natural Fibre Composites made with Recycled Nylon and Polyethylene Terephthalate
7.7 Case Studies
7.7.1 Case Study 1: Mobile Phone Protective Cases
7.7.2 Case Study 2: Wine Carrying Case
7.7.3 Case Study 3: Sunglasses
7.8 Summary

8 Joining of Natural Fibre-reinforced Thermoplastic Composites
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Purpose of Joining
8.3 Adhesive Bonding
8.3.1 Types of Adhesively Bonded Joints
8.3.2 Types of Adhesives
8.3.3 Selection Criteria and Guidelines for Adhesives
8.3.4 Advantages of Adhesive Bonding
8.3.5 Disadvantages of Adhesive Bonding
8.3.6 Guidelines for Surface Preparation
8.3.7 Design Guidelines for Adhesive Bonding
8.3.8 Basic Theory of Adhesive Bonding
8.3.8.1 Mechanical Theory
8.3.8.2 Adsorption Theory
8.3.8.3 Electrostatic Theory
8.3.8.4 Diffusion Theory
8.3.8.5 Chemical Bonding Theory
8.3.9 Failure Mechanisms in Adhesive Bonding
8.4 Mechanical Joining
8.4.1 Types of Mechanical Joining
8.4.1.1 Riveted Joint
8.4.1.2 Bolted Joint
8.4.1.3 Screw Joint
8.4.2 Advantages of Mechanical Joining
8.4.3 Disadvantages of Mechanical Joining
8.4.4 Design Guidelines for Mechanical Joining
8.5 Microwave Joining
8.5.1 Microwave Joining of Natural Fibre-reinforced Thermoplastic Composites
8.6 Comparisons of Joint Strength under Tensile Loading
8.6.1 Joint Strength of Microwave Bonded Joint
8.6.2 Joint Strength of Adhesively Bonded Joint
8.7 Concluding Remarks

9 Natural Plant Fibre Biocomposites for Structural Vehicle Components
9.1 Introduction
9.1.1 Structure of Plant Fibres
9.1.2 Chemical Composition
9.1.3 Mechanical Properties
9.1.4 Fibre Modifications
9.1.5 Selected Natural Fibres
9.1.5.1 Flax
9.1.5.2 Hemp
9.2 Resins
9.2.1 Selected Natural Resins
9.2.1.1 Bio-epoxy
9.2.1.2 Polylactides
9.3 Mechanical Performance of Natural Fibre Composites
9.3.1 Stiffness and Strength
9.3.2 Impact Performance
9.3.3 Fatigue Behaviour
9.4 Current Applications of Natural Fibre-reinforced Composites:Overview
9.5 Conclusions

10 Biocomposites based on Cellulose Material (Poplar Seed Floss) and High Density Polyethylene: Accelerated Weathering Behaviour
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Experimental
10.2.1 Materials
10.2.2 Compounding and Processing of the High Density Polyethylene/Poplar Seed Floss Composites
10.2.3 Accelerated Weathering Tests
10.2.4 Methods for Characterisation of the Composites
10.2.4.1 Mechanical Testing
10.2.4.2 Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
10.2.4.3 Contact Angle Measurements
10.2.4.4 Water Uptake Measurements
10.2.4.5 Scanning Electron Microscopy
10.2.4.6 Differential Scanning Calorimetry Analysis
10.2.4.7 Thermogravimetric Analysis
10.2.4.8 Dynamic Rheological Measurements
10.3 Investigation of the Properties of High Density Polyethylene/Poplar Seed Floss Composites
10.3.1 Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
10.3.2 Investigation of Surface Properties
10.3.2.1 Scanning Electron Microscopy Analysis
10.3.2.2 Contact Angle Measurements
10.3.2.3 Water Uptake Measurements
10.3.3 Investigation of Thermal Properties
10.3.3.1 Thermogravimetric Analysis
10.3.3.2 Differential Scanning Calorimetry Analysis
10.3.4 Investigation of Mechanical Properties
10.3.5 Investigation of Melt Rheology
10.4 Conclusions

11 Effect of Physicochemical Conditions on Biomass-based Biocomposites .
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Preparation of Hibiscus sabdariffa-based Biocomposites for Physicochemical Studies
11.3 Physicochemical Studies
11.4 Results and Discussion
11.5 Conclusions

12 Obtaining and Utilisation of Rice Husk Ash as a Filler of Polymers or Adsorbent for Oil Spill Clean-up
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Chemical Composition, Constituent, Structure and Properties of Raw Rice Husk
12.3 Technologies Available for the Thermal Degradation of Rice Husk
12.4 Physicochemical Characteristics of the Products of Thermal Degradation of Rice Husk
12.5 Utilisation of Rice Husk and the Products of its Thermal Degradation as Fillers for Polymers
12.6 Polypropylene Composites Filled with Rice Husk Ash
12.7 Utilisation of the Products of Thermal Degradation of Rice Husk as an Adsorbent of Crude Oil or Diesel Fuel
12.8 Conclusions

13 The Potential of Lignin in Biocomposites
13.1 Introduction
13.1.1 Biocomposites
13.1.2 Types of Lignin
13.1.2.1 Kraft Lignin
13.1.2.2 Soda Lignin
13.1.2.3 Other Lignins
13.2 Applications of Lignin in Polymer Composites
13.2.1 Lignin/Epoxy
13.2.2 Lignin/Thermoplastic Composites
13.2.3 Lignin-based Biodegradable Composites
13.3 Conclusions

14 Biopolymer Nanocomposites Reinforced with Nanocrystalline Cellulose
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Biopolymers
14.3 Cellulose Nanocrystals
14.4 Nanocomposites of Polymers Directly Derived from Biomass
14.4.1 Cellulose Nanocomposites
14.4.1.1 All-cellulose Nanocomposites
14.4.2 Starch Nanocomposites
14.4.3 Chitosan Nanocomposites
14.4.4 Other Polysaccharide Nanocomposites
14.4.5 Protein Nanocomposites
14.5 Nanocomposites of Polymers Synthesised using Biobased Monomers
14.5.1 Polylactic Acid Nanocomposites
14.5.2 Naturally Occurring Oil-based Polymer Nanocomposites
14.6 Nanocomposites of Microbial/Bioengineered Polymers
14.6.1 Polyhydroxyalkanoate Nanocomposites
14.6.2 Bacterial Cellulose Nanocomposites
14.6.2.1 Applications of Bacterial Cellulose based Nanocomposites
14.7 Nanocomposites of Non-degradable Biobased Polymers
14.8 Concluding Remarks and Future Perspectives
15 Cellulose Nanocrystals and Related Polymer Nanocomposites
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Hierarchical Structure of Lignocellulosic Materials
15.3 Crystalline Structure of Cellulose: Young's Modulus
15.4 Cellulose Nanocrystals
15.4.1 Extraction Process: Acid Hydrolysis
15.4.2 Effect of Hydrolysis Conditions on the Properties of Cellulose Nanocrystals
15.4.2.1 Hydrolysis Time
15.4.2.2 Acid and Cellulose Concentration
15.4.2.3 Acid Type
15.5 Sources of Cellulose Nanocrystals: Morphological Characteristics
15.6 Nanocrystals from Polysaccharides other than Cellulose
15.7 Cellulose Nanocomposite Materials
15.7.1 Effect of Polymeric Matrix on Cellulose Nanocrystal Dispersion and Processing
15.7.1.1 Water-soluble Polymers
15.7.1.2 Non-polar Polymers: Alternative Dispersion Methods
15.7.1.2.1 Dispersion of Nanoparticles in an Organic Medium
15.7.1.2.2 Coating of Nanoparticle Surface
15.7.1.2.3 Chemical Surface Modification .
15.7.2 Processing
15.7.2.1 Melt Extrusion and Impregnation Methods
15.7.2.2 Electrospinning
15.7.2.3 Multilayer Films
15.7.3 Nanocomposite Properties
15.7.3.1 Mechanical and Thermomechanical Properties
15.7.3.1.1 Cellulose Nanocrystals
15.7.3.1.2 Cellulose Nanocomposites
15.7.3.1.3 Morphology and Dimensions of the Nanoparticles
15.7.3.1.4 Effect of Processing Method
15.7.3.1.5 Effect of Matrix Microstructure and Matrix-filler Interactions
15.7.3.2 Thermal Properties
15.7.3.2.1 Glass Transition Temperature
15.7.3.2.2 Melting Temperature
15.7.3.2.3 Degree of Crystallinity
15.7.3.2.4 Thermal Stability
15.7.3.3 Swelling Properties
15.7.3.4 Barrier Properties
15.8 Conclusions and Future Trends

Abbreviations

Index

Contents

Biomass-based Biocomposites
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