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Basic Concepts of X-Ray Diffraction

  • ID: 2685995
  • Book
  • March 2014
  • 312 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Authored by a university professor deeply involved in X–ray diffraction–related research, this textbook is based on his lectures given to graduate students for more than 20 years. It adopts a well–balanced approach, describing basic concepts and experimental techniques, which make X–ray diffraction an unsurpassed method for studying the structure of materials.

Both dynamical and kinematic X–ray diffraction is considered from a unified viewpoint, in which the dynamical diffraction in single–scattering approximation serves as a bridge between these two parts. The text emphasizes the fundamental laws that govern the interaction of X–rays with matter, but also covers in detail classical and modern applications, e.g., line broadening, texture and strain/stress analyses, X–ray mapping in reciprocal space, high–resolution X–ray diffraction in the spatial and wave vector domains, X–ray focusing, inelastic and time–resolved X–ray scattering. This unique scope, in combination with otherwise hard–to–find information on analytic expressions for simulating X–ray diffraction profiles in thin–film heterostructures, X–ray interaction with phonons, coherent scattering of Mössbauer radiation, and energy–variable X–ray diffraction, makes the book indispensable for any serious user of X–ray diffraction techniques.

Compact and self–contained, this textbook is suitable for students taking X–ray diffraction courses towards specialization in materials science, physics, chemistry, or biology. Numerous clear–cut illustrations, an easy–to–read style of writing, as well as rather short, easily digestible chapters all facilitate comprehension.

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Preface

Introduction

DIFFRACTION PHENOMENA IN OPTICS

WAVE PROPAGATION IN PERIODIC MEDIA

DYNAMICAL DIFFRACTION OF PARTICLES AND FIELDS: GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

The Two–Beam Approximation

Diffraction Profile: The Laue Scattering Geometry

Diffraction Profile: The Bragg Scattering Geometry

DYNAMICAL X–RAY DIFFRACTION: THE EWALD–LAUE APPROACH

Dynamical X–Ray Diffraction: Two–Beam Approximation

DYNAMICAL DIFFRACTION: THE DARWIN APPROACH

Scattering by a Single Electron

Atomic Scattering Factor

Structure Factor

Scattering Amplitude from an Individual Atomic Plane

Diffraction Intensity inthe Bragg Scattering Geometry

DYNAMICAL DIFFRACTION IN NONHOMOGENEOUS MEDIA. THE TAKAGI–TAUPIN APPROACH

Takagi Equations

Taupin Equation

X–RAY ABSORPTION

DYNAMICAL DIFFRACTION IN SINGLE–SCATTERING APPROXIMATION: SIMULATION OF HIGH–RESOLUTION X–RAY DIFFRACTION IN HETEROSTRUCTURES AND MULTILAYERS

Direct Wave Summation Method

RECIPROCAL SPACE MAPPING AND STRAIN MEASUREMENTS IN HETEROSTRUCTURES

X–RAY DIFFRACTION IN KINEMATIC APPROXIMATION

X–Ray Polarization Factor

Debye–Waller Factor

X–RAY DIFFRACTION FROM POLYCRYSTALLINE MATERIALS

Ideal Mosaic Crystal

Powder Diffraction

APPLICATIONS TO MATERIALS SCIENCE: STRUCTURE ANALYSIS

APPLICATIONS TO MATERIALS SCIENCE: PHASE ANALYSIS

Internal Standard Method

Rietveld Refinement

APPLICATIONS TO MATERIALS SCIENCE: PREFERRED ORIENTATION (TEXTURE) ANALYSIS

The March–Dollase Approach

APPLICATIONS TO MATERIALS SCIENCE: LINE BROADENING ANALYSIS

Line Broadening due to Finite Crystallite Size

Line Broadening due to Microstrain Fluctuations

Williamson–Hall Method

The Convolution Approach

Instrumental Broadening

Relation between Grain Size–Induced and Microstrain–Induced Broadenings of X–Ray Diffraction Profiles

APPLICATIONS TO MATERIALS SCIENCE: RESIDUAL STRAIN/STRESS MEASUREMENTS

Strain Measurements in Single–Crystalline Systems

Residual Stress Measurements in Polycrystalline Materials

IMPACT OF LATTICE DEFECTS ON X–RAY DIFFRACTION

X–RAY DIFFRACTION MEASUREMENTS IN POLYCRYSTALS WITH HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION

The Theory of Energy–Variable Diffraction (EVD)

INELASTIC SCATTERING

Inelastic Neutron Scattering

Inelastic X–Ray Scattering

INTERACTION OF X–RAYS WITH ACOUSTIC WAVES

Thermal Diffuse Scattering

Coherent Scattering by Externally Excited Phonons

TIME–RESOLVED X–RAY DIFFRACTION

X–RAY SOURCES

Synchrotron Radiation

X–RAY FOCUSING OPTICS

X–Ray Focusing: Geometrical Optics Approach

X–Ray Focusing: Diffraction Optics Approach

X–RAY DIFFRACTOMETERS

High–Resolution Diffractometers

Powder Diffractometers

Index
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Emil Zolotoyabko
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