Flip Chip/WLP Manufacturing and Market Analysis - Product Image

Flip Chip/WLP Manufacturing and Market Analysis

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The Number of Packages Utilizing WLP Will Equal Flip Chip Shipments in 2018 And Then Continue Growing at a CAGR of 15%


  • Amkor Technology
  • Cisco
  • IBM Corporation
  • Intel Corporation
  • Rudolph Technology
  • STMicroelectronics
  • MORE

Advanced wafer-level packaging technologies hold the key to meeting future technology needs, from mobile devices to automotive applications, to those required for enabling the IoT. Flip chip technology is slowly replacing wire bonding for many high-performance chips. Flip Chip (FC) is not a specific package (like SOIC), or even a package type (like BGA). Flip Chip describes the method of electrically connecting the die to the package carrier whereby the interconnection between the die and carrier is made through a conductive "bump" or copper pillar that is placed directly on the die surface. The bumped die is then "flipped over" and placed face down, with the bumps connecting to the carrier directly.

This technology can be applied on application processor, baseband, PMIC, memory devices, etc. products. For mobile communications, flip chip development is driven by increased device performance and package miniaturization trends, particularly for the CPU or so called applications processor that powers smart phones and media tablets.

To meet the needs of thinner mobile devices, Wafer Level Packages (WLPs) have been developed. They differ from flip-chip packages primarily in that the die is mounted directly on the PCB. The reduced form factor provided by mounting the die directly on the PCB has vaulted WLP to the leading position for smartphones and other products where space is at a premium. In Fan-in WLP chips, I/Os are generally fanned in across the die surface using RDL buildup layers to produce an area array, and solder bumps are formed at the terminals by ball drop or plating. But as die footprints shrink and I/Os increase, Fan-in WLP has run into limits on the number of I/Os it can support.

Fan-out WLP (FO-WLP) enables redistribution of I/Os beyond the chip footprint, differing from Fan-in WLP in several key areas. The FO-WLP process typically starts when individual dies are placed on double-sided tape sitting on a silicon carrier. The die is covered with a mold compound, and the carrier and tape are removed, leaving the die embedded in the mold. The wafer is turned over; an RDL is created, and solder balls are formed on top, just as in a Fan-in WLP. The extra panel surface area around the chip permits I/Os to be both fanned in over the chip and fanned out across the mold compound, making it possible to accommodate a larger number of I/Os.

One major advantage of FO-WLP, especially in mobile applications, is that the elimination of the substrate reduces the vertical footprint by an average of 40% compared with Fan-in WLP, enabling thinner products or making it possible to stack more components in the same form factor. The elimination of the interposer and TSVs also provides a cost reduction and eliminates concerns on the effects of TSVs on electrical behavior. The reduced path to the heat sink also helps improve thermal performance.

According to this report entitled “Flip Chip/WLP Manufacturing and Market Analysis,” the number of packages utilizing WLP will equal Flip Chip shipments in 2018 and then continue growing at a compound annual growth rate of 15% (between 2014 and 2020) compared to just 5% for Flip Chip, as shown in the graphic below.

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  • Amkor Technology
  • Cisco
  • IBM Corporation
  • Intel Corporation
  • Rudolph Technology
  • STMicroelectronics
  • MORE

Chapter 1 Introduction

Chapter 2 Executive Summary

Chapter 3 Flip Chip/WLP Issues and Trends
3.1  Introduction 
3.2 Wafer Bumping
3.2.1 Solder Bumps Metallurgy Deposition Of UBM Sputter Etching Photolithography Solder Deposition Resist Strip UBM Wet Etch Reflow Flux Issues
3.2.2 Gold Bumps Bump Processing Bonding Coplanarity Conductivity Thermal Properties Size Reliability Cost Issues
3.2.3 Copper Pillar Bumps
3.2.4 Copper Stud Bumping
3.2.5  C4NP
3.3 Wafer Level Packaging 
3.4 Pad Redistribution
3.5 Wafer Bumping Costs 
3.5.1 Wafer Redistribution And Wafer Bumping Costs
3.5.2 WLCSP Hidden Costs
3.5.3 WLCSP Cost Per Good Die
3.5.4 Wafer-Level Underfill Costs
3.6 Panel Level Packaging

Chapter 4 Lithography Issues And Trends
4.1 Issues
4.1.1 Technical Performance 
4.1.2 Capital Investment
4.1.3 Cost Of Consumables 
4.1.4 Throughput 
4.1.5 Ease Of Use 
4.1.6 Flexibility 
4.1.7 Equipment Support
4.1.8 Resolution
4.1.9 Solder Bumping Capabilities
4.1.10 Gold Bumping Capabilities
4.2 Exposure Systems 
4.2.1 Introduction Reduction Steppers Full-Field Projection Mask Aligners 1X Steppers 2X Steppers
4.3 Competitive Technologies
4.3.1 Inkjet Printing
4.3.2 Stencil/Screen Printing
4.3.3 Electroless Metal Deposition

Chapter 5 UBM Etch Issues And Trends
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Technology Issues And Trends
5.2.1 Process Flow
5.2.2 Etch Process
5.2.3 Etch Chemistry
5.3 Batch Versus Single-Wafer Etching

Chapter 6 Metallization Issues and Trends
6.1 Introduction
6.2  Sputtering Metallization
6.2.1 Gold Bump
6.2.2 Solder Bumping T I / Cu and TiW / Cu Al / NiV / Cu T i / N i (V) and TiW / Ni ( V ) Cr / Cr-Cu / Cu
6.2.3 Copper Bumping
6.3 Electrodeposition

Chapter 7 Market Analysis 
7.1 Market Drivers For Flip Chip And WLP
7.2 Market Opportunities
7.3 Challenges
7.4 Flip Chip Market
7.4.1 Market Dynamics
7.4.2 Market Forecast
7.5 Lithography Market
7.5.1 Aligners Vs. Steppers
7.5.2 Market Analysis
7.6 Deposition Market

List of Tables 
3.1 Common UBM Stacks For Solder And Gold Bumping
3.2 Solder Bumping Guidelines
3.3 Gold Bumping Guidelines
3.4 Copper Bumping Guidelines
3.5 Comparison Of Solder Bumping Processes
3.6 ITRS Pin Counts For Different Applications
3.7 Pillar-WLP CSP Guidelines
3.8 Pad Redistribution Guidelines
4.1 Key Challenges For WLP Lithography
4.2 Lithography Tools By Vendor
5.1 UBM Film Etchants
5.2 Advantages Of Spin Processing
6.1 Common UBM Stacks For Gold And Solder Bumping
7.1 WLP Demand by Device (Units)
7.2 WLP Demand by Device (Wafers)
7.3 Worldwide Lithography Forecast
7.4 Cost Of Ownership Of 1x Versus 2x Steppers
7.5 Worldwide Forecast For Deposition Tools

List of Figures
3.1 C4 Chip Connections
3.2 Wafer Bump Technology Roadmap
3.3 Comparison Of Copper Pillar, Flip Chip, And WLP
3.4 Solder Bumping Process
3.5 Three Process Flows For Solder Bumping
3.6 Gold Bumping Process
3.7 Cost Per Gold Bumped Wafer
3.8 Copper Stud Bump
3.9 Breakdown Of Stud Bumping Costs
3.10 C4NP Process Description
3.11 Pillar-WLPCSP Process
3.12 Pad Redistribution Process
4.1 Laser-Projection Imaging
4.2 Solder Jet Technology
4.3 Principle Of Screen  Printing
4.4 Principle Of Inkjet Printing
4.5 Electroless Under Bump Metallization
5.1 Electroplated Solder Bumping Process
7.1 WLP Applications
7.2 Wire Bond versus Flip Chip
7.3 Flip Chip and Wire Bond Equipment Forecast
7.4 Growth in Copper Wire Bonding
7.5 Flip Chip Market  By Number of Devices
7.6 Flip Chip Market  By Number of Wafers
7.7 WLP Market by Device 2014
7.8 WLP Market by Device 2020
7.9 Device Shipment Forecast WLP Vs Flip Chip
7.10 Device Shipment Forecast FIWLP Vs FOWLP
7.11 Historic Lithography Market Shares 
7.12 Lithography Market Share Growth
7.13 ECD Market Shares
14 Sputtering Market Shares

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  • Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.
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  • Cisco
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  • IBM Corporation
  • Intel
  • Intel Corporation
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