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Hygienic Design of Food Factories. Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition

  • ID: 2719719
  • Book
  • October 2011
  • Elsevier Science and Technology
Food safety is vital for consumer confidence, and the hygienic design of food processing facilities is central to the manufacture of safe products. Hygienic design of food factories provides an authoritative overview of hygiene control in the design, construction and renovation of food factories.

The business case for a new or refurbished food factory, its equipment needs and the impacts on factory design and construction are considered in two introductory chapters. Part one then reviews the implications of hygiene and construction regulation in various countries on food factory design. Retailer requirements are also discussed. Part two describes site selection, factory layout and the associated issue of airflow. Parts three, four and five then address the hygienic design of essential parts of a food factory. These include walls, ceilings, floors, selected utility and process support systems, entry and exit points, storage areas and changing rooms. Lastly part six covers the management of building work and factory inspection when commissioning the plant.

With its distinguished editors and international team of contributors, Hygienic design of food factories is an essential reference for managers of food factories, food plant engineers and all those with an academic research interest in the field.
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Contributor contact details

Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition



Chapter 1: Business case assessment and design essentials for food factory building projects


1.1 Introduction

1.2 The need for a new or refurbished food factory

1.3 A new product: generation, approval, specification and business plan

1.4 Determine process and mass flow

1.5 Conclusion

Chapter 2: Determining equipment and process needs and how these affect food factory design


2.1 Introduction

2.2 Brownfield projects: processes and equipment

2.3 Greenfield projects: processes and equipment

2.4 Future trends

Part I: Regulatory issues and retailer requirements

Chapter 3: EU food hygiene law and implications for food factory design


3.1 The relevance of EU food hygiene law for the design of food factories

3.2 The objectives of EU food hygiene law

3.3 The EU General Food Law (GFL)

3.4 EU food hygiene law

3.5 Four types of EU food hygiene law

3.6 The combination of EU food hygiene law and other law on the design of food factories

3.7 Conclusions

Chapter 4: Regulations on the hygienic design of food processing factories in the United States


4.1 Introduction

4.2 Regulatory requirements in the United States

4.3 Guidance documents

4.4 Other agencies and considerations

4.5 Case study: a milk processing plant

4.6 Conclusion

Chapter 5: Regulation relevant to the design and construction of food factories in Japan


5.1 Introduction

5.2 Contents of regulatory requirements

5.3 Legal regulations concerning the Food Sanitation Act

5.4 Legal regulations other than those concerning the Food Sanitation Act

5.5 Industrial Safety and Health Act

5.6 Legal regulations concerning the environment

5.7 Case study

5.8 Future trends

Chapter 6: Regulation and non-regulatory guidance in Australia and New Zealand with implications for food factory design


6.1 Introduction

6.2 Food regulatory requirements in Australia and New Zealand

6.3 Trade regulations and requirements

6.4 Building requirements

6.5 Case study: food safety in meat processing

6.6 Future trends

6.7 Conclusion

6.9 Appendix 1: Australasian standards for building and construction

6.10 Appendix 2: Relevant food acts and regulations

Chapter 7: Regulatory requirements for food factory buildings in South Africa and other Southern African countries


7.1 Introduction

7.2 South African regulations and standards

7.3 Regulations and standards in other Southern African Development Community (SADC) countries

7.4 Future trends

7.5 Sources of further information

Chapter 8: Retailer requirements for hygienic design of food factory buildings


8.1 Introduction: private labels and retailers' responsibility

8.2 Background to the British Retail Consortium (BRC Food) and the International Food Standard (IFS Food)

8.3 Global Food Safety Initiative

8.4 Retailers' requirements

8.5 Future trends

8.6 Sources of further information and advice

Chapter 9: Food factory design to prevent deliberate product contamination


9.1 Introduction

9.2 Historical incidences of intentional food contamination

9.3 Food fraud versus intentional contamination

9.4 Prevention of intentional contamination

9.5 Future trends

9.6 Conclusions

Chapter 10: Minimum hygienic design requirements for food processing factories


10.1 Introduction

10.2 Site

10.3 Building design

10.4 Internal divisions

10.5 Building fabric

10.6 Services

10.7 Sources of further information and advice

Part II: Site selection and factory layout

Chapter 11: Aspects to be considered when selecting a site for a food factory


11.1 Introduction

11.2 Product

11.3 Utilities

11.4 Sources of contamination

11.5 Regulations

11.6 Protection of the environment

11.7 Industrial zoning

11.8 Financial aspects

11.9 Personnel

11.10 Security

11.11 Access

11.12 Climate

11.13 Research and Development

11.14 Conclusions

11.15 Sources of further information and advice

Chapter 12: The impact of factory layout on hygiene in food factories


12.1 Introduction

12.2 Layout of plant grounds and outer perimeter

12.3 Layout of the outer plant building

12.4 General interior building layout requirements

12.5 Manufacturing layout

12.6 Future trends

Chapter 13: Hazard control by segregation in food factories


13.1 Introduction

13.2 Barrier 1: site

13.3 Barrier 2: factory building

13.4 Barrier 3: high care/risk areas

13.5 Barrier 4: product enclosure

13.6 Future trends

Chapter 14: Managing airflow and air filtration to improve hygiene in food factories


14.1 Introduction

14.2 Airflow

14.3 Air handling equipment

14.4 Air filtration

14.5 Air handling system monitoring and maintenance

14.6 Future trends

14.7 Sources of further information and advice

Part III: Hygienic design of walls, ceilings and floors

Chapter 15: Hygienic wall finishes for food processing factories


15.1 Introduction

15.2 High performance paint coatings

15.3 Thermoplastic wall cladding systems

15.4 Stainless steel cladding

15.5 Reinforced resin laminates

15.6 Insulated panel walls and ceilings

15.7 Wall tiling

15.8 Future trends

Chapter 16: Hygienic design of ceilings for food factories


16.1 Introduction

16.2 Hygiene levels in food processing factories

16.3 Other factors affecting the type of ceiling system used in a food factory

16.4 Types of hygienic suspended ceiling systems

16.5 Walk-on type ceiling consisting of sandwich panels

16.6 Selection of the type and make of sandwich panels

16.7 Non-walk-on acoustical lay-in hygienic tiling systems

16.8 Hygienic coatings for production facilities without suspended ceilings

16.9 Hygienic coatings

16.10 Lighting

16.11 Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC)

Chapter 17: Hygienic floor finishes for food processing areas


17.1 Introduction

17.2 Establishing requirements for floor finishes in food processing factories

17.3 Selection of floor finish materials

17.4 Substrate requirements

17.5 Detailing within the design

17.6 Hygiene control during the renovation of existing floor finishes

17.7 Cleaning and maintenance

17.8 Future trends

17.9 Sources of further information and advice

Chapter 18: Hygienic design of floor drains in food processing areas


18.1 Introduction

18.2 Channel and gully system functional overview

18.3 Floor drains as a point of contamination

18.4 Material choice for floor drainage

18.5 Modelling flow in drainage channels

18.6 Incorporating hygienic design principles in drain design

18.7 Layout and zoning areas

18.8 Load capacity

18.9 Slip resistance

18.10 Fire prevention

Part IV: Hygienic design of selected fixtures, utility systems and process support systems

Chapter 19: Hygienic supply of electricity in food factories


19.1 Introduction

19.2 Standards and regulations with which electrical equipment has to comply

19.3 Use of electrical equipment in the food industry

19.4 Materials of construction

19.5 Hygienic supply of electricity

19.6 Electrical cabinets and field boxes

19.7 Hygienic design and installation of electrical equipment

19.8 Data/telecommunication and control systems

Chapter 20: Hygienic design of lighting in food factories


20.1 Introduction

20.2 Electric lighting standards

20.3 Use of daylight

20.4 Light intensity and uniformity of illumination

20.5 Functional lighting

20.6 Application of the appropriate lighting in warehouses

20.7 Lamps

20.8 Selection of armatures

20.9 Cleaning and maintenance of lamps and armatures

20.10 Innovative energy-saving lighting technologies and strategies

20.11 Hygienic recommendations with respect to electric lighting

20.12 Special duty lighting

Chapter 21: Hygienic design of piping for food processing support systems in food factories


21.1 Introduction

21.2 Location of support systems and building services within the food factory

21.3 General hygienic requirements for food processing support piping within the factory

21.4 Specific hygienic design requirements for food processing support piping in rooms of different hygienic class

Chapter 22: Hygienic design of exhaust and dust control systems in food factories


22.1 Introduction

22.2 Mechanical ventilation

22.3 Hygienic design of exhaust systems for the removal of steam, heat, odours and grease-contaminated vapour outside the food factory

22.4 Hygienic design of specific exhaust systems used to handle effluents produced during the processing of food by means of heat

22.5 Installation of exhaust systems within the food factory

22.6 Cleaning of exhaust systems

22.7 Inspection and maintenance of exhaust systems

22.8 Hygienic design of exhaust facilities applied to extract heat, aerosols, bio-burden, odours and toxic vapours out of process rooms and technical areas

22.9 Hygienic design of dust control systems

22.10 Influence of the exhaust system on the air flow and air quality

Chapter 23: Managing steam quality in food and beverage processing


23.1 Introduction

23.2 Steam grade definitions

23.3 Plant steam

23.4 Filtered steam

23.5 Clean steam

23.6 Pure steam

23.7 Installation, operation and maintenance

23.8 Boiler installation

23.9 Steam pipe insulation

23.11 Appendix 1: Typical applications where steam is used in direct contact with the product/process

23.12 Appendix 2: Typical chemicals, which are generally added to the feedwater as part of a water treatment programme

23.13 Appendix 3: Chemicals that are approved by the Food and Drink Administration (FDA) in the USA for use with food and beverage products with acceptable concentration for each chemical

Chapter 24: Hygienic design of walkways, stairways and other installations in food factories


24.1 Introduction

24.2 Determining the equipment needs

24.3 Future trends

24.4 Sources of further information and advice

24.5 Acknowledgement

Part V: Hygienic design of specific factory areas

Chapter 25: Hygienic design of entries, exits, other openings in the building envelope and dry warehousing areas in food factories


25.1 Hygienic design of foundations, support structures, external walls and roofs

25.2 Hygienic design of entry, exit and storage points

25.3 Entry doors visitors and employees

25.4 Truck docks (loading, unloading)

25.5 Storage dry warehousing

25.6 Cold storage (including freezer storage)

25.7 Sanitary design of openings in the building envelope

25.8 Future trends

Chapter 26: Effluents from the food industry


26.1 Introduction

26.2 Effluent characterisation

26.3 Sequence of processes and operations

26.4 Microbiological hazards for the food factory

26.5 Sources of further information

Chapter 27: Design of food storage facilities


27.1 Introduction and definitions

27.2 General design requirements

27.3 Storage facilities for dry products and dry cleaning requirements

27.4 Wet cleaning of storage facilities and storage of liquid products

27.5 Future trends

Chapter 28: Design, installation and operation of cleaning and disinfectant chemical storage, distribution and application systems in food factories


28.1 Introduction

28.2 Storage of industrial detergents, disinfectants and associated products

28.3 Hygiene chemical distribution and point of use location within production areas

28.4 Dose, control and application of hygiene chemicals

28.5 Dry cleaning and goods area

28.6 Cleaning rooms and utensil washing

28.7 Maintenance and cleaning of the cleaning systems

28.8 Requirements for transition to operation

28.9 Future trends

Chapter 29: Design of food factory changing rooms


29.1 Introduction

29.2 Legislation

29.3 Facilities design

29.4 Low risk/high risk barriers

29.5 Cross-contamination risks

29.6 Future trends

Part VI: Managing building work and additional factory design considerations

Chapter 30: Managing a factory building project: from development of a construction brief to commissioning and handover


30.1 Introduction

30.2 Business case justification

30.3 Project definition

30.4 Construction brief

30.5 Contractual arrangements

30.6 Model contracts

30.7 Selecting a contractor

30.8 Overview

30.9 Managing construction

30.10 Equipment procurement, testing and installation

30.11 Commissioning and handover

30.12 Future trends

30.13 Sources for further information and advice

Chapter 31: Inspecting hygienic design, hygiene practices and process safety when commissioning a food factory


31.1 Inspecting for commissioning of manufacturing sites for hygienic design and practice

31.2 A site that has been newly designed and built for food manufacture

31.3 An existing manufacturing site that is being acquired by another company

31.4 An existing site that has no history of food production is to be adapted for food purposes

31.5 Preparing the team

31.6 Conclusion

Chapter 32: An insurance industry perspective on property protection and liability issues in food factory design


32.1 Introduction

32.2 Hazard analysis

32.3 Requirements for property insurance (fire, natural hazards, business interruption)

32.4 Requirements for liability insurance (occupational safety, third party, product and environmental liability)

32.5 Prevention and protection

32.6 Future trends

32.7 Checklist for easy reference

32.8 Sources of further information and advice


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John Holah Technical Director, Holchem Laboratories; Visiting Professor, Food Safety Cardiff Metropolitan University, UK. Prof. Dr. John Holah is an applied microbiologist focused on the prevention of microbial, chemical, and foreign body contamination of food during manufacture and retail distribution. He is currently Technical Director of Holchem Laboratories (UK), a major supplier of cleaning chemicals, disinfectants and hygiene services. He is a Visiting Professor in Food Safety at Cardiff Metropolitan University and was previously Head of Food Hygiene at Campden BRI. He has been a member of the EHEDG (the European Hygienic Engineering and Design Group) since 1989 and has also chaired ISO Working Groups producing standards on hygienic design and lubricants and chaired the GFSI Working Group on the hygienic design of food facilities and equipment. He is a co-editor in the other two Elseveir books. He has published and presented hundreds of scientific papers, technical articles and presentations in food safety and hygienic design. Huub Lelieveld President of the Global Harmonization Initiative (www.globalharmonization.net). Prof. Dr. h.c. H.L.M. (Huub) Lelieveld is President of the Global Harmonization Initiative and Fellow of the International Academy of Food Science and Technology, and was formerly at Unilever in Vlaardingen, The Netherlands. He editor or co-editor of numerous books, including several on hygiene and food safety management; novel food processing technologies and harmonization of food safety regulations. He produced chapters for many books and encyclopaedia, hundreds of scientific articles and articles for magazines and presented hundreds of papers, globally. He has been awarded doctor honoris causa at the National University of Food Technologies in Kiev, Ukraine.
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