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Radionuclide Behaviour in the Natural Environment. Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy

  • ID: 2719929
  • Book
  • September 2012
  • 744 Pages
  • Elsevier Science and Technology
Understanding radionuclide behaviour in the natural environment is essential to the sustainable development of the nuclear industry and key to assessing potential environmental risks reliably. Minimising those risks is essential to enhancing public confidence in nuclear technology. Scientific knowledge in this field has developed greatly over the last decade.Radionuclide behaviour in the natural environment provides a comprehensive overview of the key processes and parameters affecting radionuclide mobility and migration.

After an introductory chapter, part one explores radionuclide chemistry in the natural environment, including aquatic chemistry and the impact of natural organic matter and microorganisms. Part two discusses the migration and radioecological behavior of radionuclides. Topics include hydrogeology, sorption and colloidal reactions as well as in-situ investigations. Principles of modelling coupled geochemical, transport and radioecological properties are also discussed. Part three covers application issues: assessment of radionuclide behaviour in contaminated sites, taking Chernobyl as an example, estimation of radiological exposure to the population, performance assessment considerations related to deep geological repositories, and remediation concepts for contaminated sites.

With its distinguished editors and international team of expert contributors, Radionuclide behaviour in the natural environment is an essential tool for all those interested or involved in nuclear energy, from researchers, designers and industrial operators to environmental scientists. It also provides a comprehensive guide for academics of all levels in this field.

- Provides a comprehensive overview of the key processes and parameters affecting radionuclide mobility and migration- Explores radionuclide chemistry in the natural environment- Discusses the migration and radioecological behaviour of radionuclides

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Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy


Chapter 1: Overview of radionuclide behaviour in the natural environment


1.1 Introduction

1.2 Radionuclides of interest

1.3 Environmental compartments to be considered

1.4 References

Part I: Radionuclide chemistry in the natural environment

Chapter 2: Fundamentals of aquatic chemistry relevant to radionuclide behaviour in the environment


2.1 Introduction

2.2 Composition of natural waters

2.3 Dissolution and precipitation

2.4 Aqueous complexes

2.5 Surface sorption

2.6 Colloids

2.7 Redox reactions

2.8 References

Chapter 3: Aquatic chemistry of the actinides: aspects relevant to their environmental behavior


3.1 Introduction

3.2 Oxidation states of actinides in aqueous solution

3.3 Actinide solid phases and solubility phenomena

3.4 Actinide complexation reactions

3.5 Chemical modeling tools and thermodynamic databases

3.6 Recommended literature

3.7 References

Chapter 4: Aquatic chemistry of long-lived mobile fission and activation products in the context of deep geological disposal


4.1 Introduction

4.2 The effects of the near field in high-level radioactive waste disposal

4.3 Solution and interfacial chemistry of selected radionuclides

4.4 Summary

4.5 References

Chapter 5: Impacts of humic substances on the geochemical behaviour of radionuclides


5.1 Introduction to humic substances

5.2 The 'humic acid molecule'

5.3 Discrete models of metal ion-humic interactions

5.4 Multiligand and macromolecular models of metal ion-humic interactions

5.5 Kinetic models of metal ion-humic interactions

5.6 Impacts of humic substances on radionuclide transport in different sites worldwide

5.7 Conclusions and future trends

5.8 References

Chapter 6: Impacts of microorganisms on radionuclides in contaminated environments and waste materials


6.1 Introduction

6.2 Biotransformation of uranium

6.3 Biotransformation of plutonium

6.4 Biosorption and bioaccumulation of uranium and plutonium

6.5 Biotransformation of other actinides and related elements

6.6 Biotransformation of fission and activation products

6.7 Microbiological studies of low- and intermediate-level wastes, and high-level waste repository sites

6.8 Conclusion

6.9 Acknowledgments

6.11 References

Part II: Radionuclide migration

Chapter 7: Hydrogeological features relevant to radionuclide migration in the natural environment


7.1 Introduction

7.2 The water content of the subsoil

7.3 Groundwater movement in the soil and subsoil

7.4 Aquifer systems

7.5 Groundwater flow equations for aquifer systems

7.6 Solving the flow equations for aquifer systems

7.7 References

Chapter 8: Radionuclide retention at mineralâ?"water interfaces in the natural environment


8.1 Introduction

8.2 Macroscopic studies of radionuclide sorption

8.3 Sorption models

8.4 Spectroscopic techniques

8.5 Future developments

8.6 Acknowledgements

8.7 References

Chapter 9: Radionuclide migration: coupling transport and chemistry


9.1 Introduction

9.2 The transport phenomenon

9.3 Coupling chemistry to transport

9.4 Application examples

9.5 References

Chapter 10: Impact of colloidal transport on radionuclide migration in the natural environment


10.1 Introduction

10.2 Geochemistry and sorption behavior of radionuclides

10.3 Nature and origin of colloids

10.4 Colloid characteristics

10.5 Laboratory experiments of colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport

10.6 Field studies of radionuclide migration

10.7 Conclusion and future trends

10.8 Acknowledgments

10.9 References

Chapter 11: Natural analogues of nuclear waste repositories: studies and their implications for the development of radionuclide migration models


11.1 Introduction

11.2 Nature and limitations of natural analogues

11.3 Selected natural analogue sites

11.4 Lessons on radionuclide (RN) geochemistry and migration from main natural analogues studies

11.5 Conclusion

11.6 Acknowledgement

11.7 References

Chapter 12: Studying radionuclide migration on different scales: the complementary roles of laboratory and in situ experiments


12.1 Introduction

12.2 Designing laboratory studies at different scales on radionuclide diffusion in underground environments

12.3 Studies at different scales on diffusion in Swiss Opalinus Clay

12.4 Studies at different scales on diffusion in French Callovo-Oxfordian claystone

12.5 Laboratory experiments at the decimetre-scale on the transport of radionuclides in non-consolidated porous media

12.6 Conclusions and future trends

12.7 References

12.8 Appendix: definitions and abbreviations

Chapter 13: Radionuclide transfer processes in the biosphere


13.1 Introduction

13.2 Radionuclide speciation and interactions with biological ligands

13.3 Transfer to plants and biodistribution

13.4 Transfer to animal species and biodistribution

13.5 Transfer to man

13.6 Effect on metabolic pathways

13.7 Transfers through epithelial barriers: the digestive barrier

13.8 Membrane transport

13.9 Intracellular mechanisms: homeostasis and stress

13.10 Future trends

13.11 Acknowledgements

13.12 References

Part III: Environmental impact and remediation

Chapter 14: Modelling radionuclide transport in the environment and calculating radiation doses


14.1 Introduction

14.2 Modelling radionuclide transport in the environment

14.3 Assessing radiation doses to humans

14.4 Assessing radiation doses to non-human biota

14.5 Achieving a comprehensive assessment

14.6 Conclusion and future trends

14.7 References

Chapter 15: Quantitative assessment of radionuclide migration from near-surface radioactive waste burial sites: the waste dumps in the Chernobyl exclusion zone as an example


15.1 Introduction

15.2 The Chernobyl Pilot Site in the Red Forest

15.3 Modelling radionuclide migration in the aquifer considering stationary hydrodynamic and geochemical conditions

15.4 Prediction of 90Sr migration, assuming non-stationary hydro-biogeochemical conditions

15.5 Conclusions and future trends

15.6 Acknowledgements

15.7 References

Chapter 16: Remediation of sites contaminated by radionuclides


16.1 Introduction

16.2 Potential sources of radionuclide release

16.3 Methods of cleaning contaminated sites

16.4 Environmental monitoring tools

16.5 Modelling tools for planning clean-up

16.6 Risk assessment studies of hazardous sites and clean-up measures

16.7 Examples of remediation of contaminated sites

16.8 Sources of further information

16.9 References

Chapter 17: Safety assessment of nuclear waste repositories: a radionuclide migration perspective


17.1 Introduction

17.2 Repository concepts

17.3 Safety assessment (SA) methodology

17.4 Integration of the main radionuclide migration processes and parameters in the safety assessment (SA) models

17.5 Gaps in understanding and the qualification and quantification of the safety assessment (SA) models

17.6 Conclusions

17.7 Acknowledgements

17.8 References


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Poinssot, Christophe
Professor Christophe Poinssot is Head of the Radiochemistry and Processes Department at the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and Professor at the National Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (INSTN), France.
Geckeis, Horst
Professor Horst Geckeis is Director of the Institute for Nuclear Waste Disposal at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany.
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