Porous Silicon for Biomedical Applications. Woodhead Publishing Series in Biomaterials

  • ID: 2784444
  • Book
  • 558 Pages
  • Elsevier Science and Technology
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Porous silicon has a range of properties, making it ideal for drug delivery, cancer therapy, and tissue engineering. Porous Silicon for Biomedical Applications provides a comprehensive review of this emerging nanostructured and biodegradable biomaterial.

Chapters in part one focus on the fundamentals and properties of porous silicon for biomedical applications, including thermal properties and stabilization, photochemical and nonthermal chemical modification, protein-modified porous silicon films, and biocompatibility of porous silicon. Part two discusses applications in bioimaging and sensing, and explores the optical properties of porous silicon materials; in vivo imaging assessment and radiolabelling of porous silicon; and nanoporous silicon biosensors for DNA sensing and for bacteria detection. Finally, part three highlights drug loading and characterization of porous silicon materials, tumor targeting and imaging, and porous silicon scaffolds for functional tissue engineering, stem cell growth, and osteodifferentiation.

With its acclaimed editor and international team of expert contributors, Porous Silicon for Biomedical Applications is a technical resource and indispensable guide for all those involved in the research, development, and application of porous silicon and other biomaterials, while providing a comprehensive introduction for students and academics interested in the field.

  • Comprehensive review of porous silicon focusing on the fabrication and properties of this emerging material
  • Specifically discusses drug delivery and orthopedic applications of porous silicon
  • Aimed at materials researchers and scientists in the biomaterials industry - particularly those concerned with drug delivery and orthopedics

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Woodhead Publishing Series in Biomaterials




Part I: Fundamentals of porous silicon for biomedical applications

1. Porous silicon for medical use: from conception to clinical use


1.1 Introduction

1.2 Biocompatibility of micromachined silicon

1.3 From concept to clinic

1.4 Producing useful physical forms of nanostructured silicon

1.5 Clinical manufacture

1.6 Clinical trials

1.7 Conclusions and future trends

1.8 Acknowledgements

1.9 References

2. Thermal stabilization of porous silicon for biomedical applications


2.1 Introduction

2.2 Thermal oxidation

2.3 Thermal carbonization

2.4 Thermal nitridation and annealing

2.5 Conclusions and future trends

2.6 References

3. Thermal properties of nanoporous silicon materials


3.1 Introduction

3.2 Thermal constants of porous silicon (PSi)

3.3 Thermo-acoustic effect

3.4 Applications

3.5 Conclusions and future trends

3.6 Acknowledgment

3.7 References

4. Photochemical and nonthermal chemical modification of porous silicon for biomedical applications


4.1 Introduction

4.2 Hydrosilylation and controlled surface modification of Si

4.3 Photo-initiated reactions

4.4 Mechanism of photo-initiated reaction

4.5 Electrochemical grafting

4.6 Reactions initiated by other means

4.7 Conclusions and future trends

4.8 Acknowledgments

4.9 References

5. Modifying porous silicon with self-assembled monolayers for biomedical applications


5.1 Introduction

5.2 Silane-based monolayers

5.3 Hydrosilylation of alkenes and alkynes

5.4 Building more complicated interfaces

5.5 Conclusions and future trends

5.6 References

6. Protein-modified porous silicon films for biomedical applications


6.1 Introduction

6.2 Proteins on surfaces

6.3 Porous silicon monolayers and multilayers

6.4 Characterization methods

6.5 Protein-modified PSi

6.6 Conclusions and future trends

6.7 References

7. Biocompatibility of porous silicon for biomedical applications


7.1 Introduction

7.2 Assessment methods for testing the biocompatibility of biomaterials

7.3 Effects of the PSi-based material interactions at the cellular level

7.4 In vivo behaviour of PSi-based materials

7.5 Conclusions and future trends

7.6 Acknowledgements

7.7 References

Part II: Porous silicon for bioimaging and biosensing applications

8. Optical properties of porous silicon materials for biomedical applications


8.1 Introduction

8.2 Morphology of PSi

8.3 Effective medium models

8.4 Optical constants of nano-PSi

8.5 Stability of the optical properties of nano-PSi

8.6 Multilayer structures

8.7 Optical applications of PSi optical filters

8.8 Conclusions and future trends

8.9 References

9. In vivo imaging assessment of porous silicon


9.1 Introduction

9.2 Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

9.3 Nuclear imaging

9.4 Optical imaging

9.5 Compiling PSi-based systems for imaging

9.6 In vivo imaging studies with PSi particles

9.7 Conclusions and future trends

9.8 Acknowledgments

9.9 References

10. Radiolabeled porous silicon for bioimaging applications


10.1 Introduction

10.2 Methods for tracing drug delivery

10.3 Nuclear imaging in drug development

10.4 Radiolabeled PSi nanomaterials

10.5 Conclusions and future trends

10.6 References

11. Desorption/ionization on porous silicon (DIOS) for metabolite imaging


11.1 Introduction

11.2 Substrate preparation for DIOS

11.3 Desorption and ionization mechanism of DIOS

11.4 Improved ionization methods based on DIOS

11.5 DIOS in mass spectrometry imaging (MSI)

11.6 Conclusions and future trends

11.7 References

12. Porous silicon for bacteria detection


12.1 Introduction

12.2 'Indirect' bacteria detection

12.3 'Direct' bacteria detection

12.4 Conclusions and future trends

12.5 References

13. Nanoporous silicon biosensors for DNA sensing


13.1 Introduction

13.2 Porous silicon (PSi) sensor preparation

13.3 PSi DNA sensor structures, measurement techniques, and sensitivity

13.4 Optical transduction

13.5 Electrical and electrochemical transduction

13.6 Corrosion of PSi DNA sensors

13.7 Effect of pore size on DNA infiltration and detection

13.8 Control of DNA surface density in nanoscale pores

13.9 Kinetics for real-time sensing

13.10 Conclusions and future trends

13.11 Acknowledgement

13.12 References

Part III: Porous silicon for drug delivery, cancer therapy and tissue engineering applications

14. Drug loading and characterization of porous silicon materials


14.1 Introduction

14.2 Methods for the loading of the cargo molecules into PSi pores

14.3 Characterization of drug-loaded PSi materials

14.4 Conclusions and future trends

14.5 References

15. Nanoporous silicon to enhance drug solubility


15.1 Introduction

15.2 Loading poorly soluble drugs into PSi

15.3 In vitro studies of drug dissolution

15.4 In vivo studies of drug delivery

15.5 Conclusions and future trends

15.6 References

16. Multistage porous silicon for cancer therapy


16.1 Introduction

16.2 The biology of cancer

16.3 Current therapeutics

16.4 Mesoporous silicon and therapeutic applications

16.5 Conclusions and future trends

16.6 References

17. Porous silicon for tumour targeting and imaging


17.1 Introduction

17.2 Tumour targeting and imaging

17.3 Preparation of PSi particles

17.4 PSi particles for in vivo tumour targeting

17.5 PSi particles for in vivo tumour imaging

17.6 Conclusions and future trends

17.7 References

18. Porous silicon-polymer composites for cell culture and tissue engineering applications


18.1 Introduction

18.2 Fundamentals of porous silicon (PSi) and PSi/polymer composite fabrication and functionalization

18.3 PSi/polymer composites

18.4 Polymers for tissue engineering

18.5 The grafting of biopolymers to PSi

18.6 PSi and tissue engineering

18.7 Applications of PSi-polymer composites in tissue culture and bioengineering

18.8 Conclusions and future trends

18.9 Sources of further information and advice

18.10 Acknowledgement

18.11 References

19. Porous silicon and related composites as functional tissue engineering scaffolds


19.1 Introduction

19.2 Role of porous silicon (PSi) biodegradability

19.3 Strategies for PSi/polymer composite formulation

19.4 Studies related to orthopedic tissue engineering

19.5 Conclusions and future trends

19.6 References

20. Porous silicon scaffolds for stem cells growth and osteodifferentiation


20.1 Introduction

20.2 Stem cells for bone tissue engineering: adult, neonatal and embryonic stem cells (ESCs)

20.3 Stem cells osteogenic differentiation and bone formation

20.4 Influence of pore size, nanoroughness and chemical surface treatment

20.5 Growth factors delivery and Si effects on osteodifferentiation

20.6 Conclusions and future trends

20.7 References


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Santos, Helder A.
Hélder A. Santos is Associate Professor in Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Principal Investigator/Group Leader, Head of the Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Technology, Director of the Doctoral Program in Drug Research, and Head of the Preclinical Drug Formulation and Analysis Group at the Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki (Finland). Santos' research is focused on nanobiomaterials, including nanoporous silica/silicon materials and polymeric-based nanoparticles for controlled drug delivery, diagnostics and therapy. The research interests include the development of nanoparticles/nanomedicines for biomedical and healthcare applications. His current work makes the bridge between engineering, pharmaceutical and medical research. His main research focus is in the use of biodegradable and biocompatible nanoporous silicon nanomaterials, polymers, the application of microfluidics technology for nanoparticle production for simultaneous controlled drug delivery, diagnostic and treatment of cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases, and further translation of these nanotechnologies into the clinic. He is the author/co-author of more than 220 publications, including reviews, journal editorials, book chapters and 3 patents (> 4265 citations, h-index = 40), and more than 200 conference proceedings/abstracts.
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