The Non-halogenated Flame Retardant Handbook - Product Image

The Non-halogenated Flame Retardant Handbook

  • ID: 2827005
  • Book
  • 400 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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A one–stop, practical handbook containing all of the current commercial non–halogenated flame retardant technologies as well as experimental systems near commercialization

In response to the emphasis on replacing halogenated flame retardants with alternate technologies, this handbook focuses on existing non–halogenated flame retardants and the experimental close–to–production systems that are available today.

The Non–Halogenated Flame Retardant Handbook starts with an overview of the regulations and customer perceptions driving non–halogenated flame retardant selections over older halogenated technologies. It then moves on to cover the known major classes of non–halogenated flame retardants, before concluding with the current niche–performing technologies and untried commercial contenders of the future.

The Non–Halogenated Flame Retardant Handbook:

  • Takes a practical approach to addressing the narrow subject of non–halogenated flame retardancy—placing more emphasis on flame retardant selection for specific plastics, practical considerations in flame retardant material design, and the various technologies’ strengths and limits
  • Focuses on the proper use of non–halogenated flame retardants, rather than the mechanics of how they work
  • Discusses important future trends in flame retardancy
  • Features sections written by industrial and chemical experts who know how to apply the technology to polymers for fire safety needs


Materials scientists, industrial chemists, fire safety engineers, design engineers, and electrical engineers.

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1 The History and Future Trends of Non–halogenated Flame Retarded Polymers 1
James W. Mitchell

1.1 Introduction 2

1.2 Key Flame Retardancy Safety Requirements 6

1.3 Geographical Trends 8

1.4 Applications for Non–halogenated FRP's 11

References 14

2 Phosphorus–based FRs 17
Sergei Levchik

2.1 Introduction 17

2.2 Main Classes of Phosphorus–based FRs 18

2.3 Polyolefins 20

2.4 Polycarbonate and Its Blends 27

2.5 Polyphenylene Ether Blends 32

2.6 Polyesters and Polyamides 34

2.7 Thermoplastic Elastomers (TPE) and Thermoplastic Polyurethanes (TPU) 38

2.8 Epoxy Resins 39

2.9 Unsaturated Polyesters 43

2.10 PU Foams 45

2.11 Textiles 50

2.12 Conclusions and Further Trends 55

References 56

3 Mineral Filler Flame Retardants 75
Reiner Sauerwein

3.1 Introduction 75

3.2 Industrial Importance of Mineral Flame Retardants 76

3.3 Overview of mineral filler FRs 81

3.4 Working Principle of Hydrated Mineral Flame Retardants 101

3.5 Thermoplastic and Elastomeric Applications 109

3.6 Reactive Resins/Thermoset Applications 127

3.7 Summary, Trends and Challenges 137

References 138

4 Nitrogen–based Flame Retardants 143
Martin Klatt

4.1 Introduction 143

4.2 Main Types of Nitrogen–based Flame Retardants 144

4.3 Ammonia–based Flame Retardants 144

4.4 Melamine–based Flame Retardants 149

4.5 Nitrogen–based Radical Generators 159

4.6 Phosphazenes, Phospham and Phosphoroxynitride 162

4.7 Cyanuric Acid–based Flame Retardants 164

4.8 Summary and Conclusion 165

References 165

5 Silicon Based Flame Retardants 169
Mert Kilinc

5.1 Introduction 169

5.2 Basics of Silicon Chemistry 170

5.3 Industrial Applications of Silicones 172

5.4 Silicones as Flame Retardant Materials 175

5.5 Mode of Actions of Silicone–based Flame Retardants 190

5.6 Toxicology and Environmental Effects of Silicones 191

5.7 Future Trends in Silicon–based Flame Retardants 194

5.8 Summary 195

References 196

6 Boron–based Flame Retardants in Non–Halogen–based Polymers 201
Kelvin K. Shen

6.1 Introduction 201

6.2 Major Functions of Borates in Flame Retardancy 202

6.3 Major Commercial Boron–based Flame Retardants and Their Applications 202

6.4 Mode of Actions of Boron–based Flame Retardants 233

6.5 Conclusions 234

References 235

7 Polymer Nanocomposites: A nearly Universal FR Synergist 243
Guenter Beyer and Tie Lan Nanocor

7.1 Introduction 243

7.2 Inorganic Materials as Candidate for Nanocomposite Formation 244

7.3 Nanocomposites as Non–Halogenated Flame 252

7.4 Combinations of Nanocomposite with Traditional Flame Retardants 271

7.5 Contribution of Nanocomposites to Achieve New FR Cable Standard (EU CPR) 282

7.6 New Developments and Outlook 286

References 289

8 Intumescent Systems 293
S. Duquesne and T. Futterer

8.1 Introduction 293

8.2 The basics of Intumescence 294

8.3 Intumescent Products and Formulations Used in Thermoplastic and Thermoset Materials 300

8.4 Intumescent Systems in Fire Protection 321

8.5 Trends and Challenges in Intumescent Systems 329

8.6 Conclusions 332

References 333

9 Other Non–Halogenated Flame Retardant Chemistries and Future Flame Retardant Solutions 347
Alexander B. Morgan, Paul A. Cusack andCharles A. Wilkie

9.1 The Periodic Table of Flame Retardants 347

9.2 Transition Metal Flame Retardants 350

9.3 Sulfur–based Flame Retardants 355

9.4 Carbon–based Flame Retardants 356

9.5 Tin–based Flame Retardants 364

9.6 Engineering Non–Hal FR Solutions 380

9.7 Future Directions 385

Acknowledgements 395

References 395

Index 000
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ALEXANDER B. MORGAN has over seventeen years of experience in the areas of materials flammability, polymeric material flame retardancy, fire science, fire testing, and fire safety engineering with an emphasis on chemical structure property relationships and fire safe material design. He has helped academic, government, and industrial customers solve their flame retardant and fire safety needs in a wide range of applications. Dr. Morgan is on the editorial review boards for two fire safety journals (Fire and Materials, Journal of Fire Science), and is a member of ASTM, Sigma Xi, International Association of Fire Safety Scientists, and the American Chemical Society.

CHARLES A. WILKIE is currently Professor Emeritus at Marquette University. When he retired in 2009 he held the position of Pflettchinger–Habberman Chair of Chemistry. He has worked for more than thirty–five years in fire retardancy of polymers—covering many different areas of fire retardancy, including intumescence, nanocomposites, mineral hydrates, and phosphorus chemistry. He serves on the editorial boards of Polymer Degradation and Stability, Thermochimica Acta, Journal of Fire Sciences, Fire Safety Journal, and is an Editor of Polymers for Advanced Technologies.

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