Drug Discovery for the Treatment of Addiction. Medicinal Chemistry Strategies

  • ID: 2827009
  • Book
  • 358 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Reveals the prominent role of medicinal chemistry in treating addiction

With addiction a key target for drug discovery efforts, this book fills an important and timely need for medicinal chemists who need to understand complex neuroscience issues. The author illustrates medicinal chemistry′s prominent role in treating addiction and covers specific drugs of abuse including narcotics, stimulants, depressants, nicotine, and marijuana. Divided into two broad sections, the book first deals with general aspects of addiction, neuropharmacology, behavioural pharmacology, and drug development; and then delves more deeply into medication development. The book:

  • Interprets complex neuro– biological and pharmacological information, like the drug–reward system, for medicinal chemists
  • Emphasizes neurotransmitters and neurochemical mechanisms of addictive drugs
  • Pulls together information on the many potential drug targets for treating addiction
  • Stresses unique medicinal chemistry problems when describing pharmacology testing methods and drug development
A fascinating field of research with very real therapeutic outcomes, addiction deserves the attention of medicinal chemists. The author reduces this complex subject to where it is understandable to non–specialists and helps foster the kind of close working relationship between chemists and behavioural pharmacologists that is critical to effective drug development.
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Preface xiii

1 What Is Drug Addiction? 1

1.1 Definitions 2

1.2 The Drugs of Abuse 4

1.3 Schedule of Controlled Substances 5

1.4 Some Facts From 2012 NSDUH Study 6

1.5 The Addictive State 8

1.6 Theories of Addiction 12

1.7 Comorbidity 13

1.8 Genetic Aspects of Addiction 13

1.9 Approved Medications for the Treatment of Substance Abuse and Addiction 16

2 Physiological Basis of Addiction A Chemist′s Interpretation 18

2.1 The Reward System 19

2.2 Neuroanatomy of the Reward System 21

2.3 Brief Review of the Central Nervous System and Addiction 22

2.4 Neurotransmitters and Their Targets 25

2.5 Neurocircuitry and Neurotransmitters in Addiction 32

2.6 Location of Receptors 62

2.7 An Example 64

2.8 Use of Biological Markers 65

2.9 Memories and Addiction 68

2.10 Stress the HPA Axis and Addiction 72

3 Behavioral Pharmacology and Addiction 76

3.1 Animal Models of Addiction 76

3.2 Self–Administration 80

3.3 Conditioned Place Preference 85

3.4 Tolerance 86

3.5 Extinction/Withdrawal 87

3.6 Reinstatement (Animal Models of Relapse) 87

3.7 Drug Discrimination 89

3.8 Operant Sensation Seeking Model 92

3.9 Use of Animal Behavioral Models 92

Acknowledgments 93

4 Medication Development for the Treatment of Drug Addiction 94

4.1 Lead Discovery 95

4.1.1 NIDA Addiction Treatment Discovery Program 96

4.2 Pharmacological Assays 103

4.3 Partial Agonist Approach 110

4.4 Allosteric Modulators 110

4.5 Functional Interactions Between Receptors 114

4.6 Multi–Target Drugs 121

4.7 Physicochemical Properties of CNS Drugs and Blood–Brain Barrier 124

4.8 Brain Imaging Agents 131

4.9 QT Prolongation 135

5 Medication Development for Narcotic Addiction 137

5.1 Pharmacology of Narcotic Addiction and Pain 138

5.2 Prescription Drug Addiction 139

5.3 Approved Medications 140

5.4 Medication Development 151

6 Medication Development for Stimulant Addiction 160

6.1 Pharmacology of Cocaine Addiction 160

6.2 Pharmacology of Methamphetamine Addiction 163

6.3 Medication Development 166

7 Medication Development for Depressant Addiction 213

7.1 Pharmacology of Alcohol Addiction 213

7.2 Approved Medications 214

7.3 Medication Development 219

7.4 Benzodiazepines 228

7.5 Barbiturates 229

8 Medication Development for Nicotine Addiction 230

8.1 Pharmacology of Nicotine Addiction 230

8.2 Approved Medications 232

8.3 Medication Development 237

9 Medication Development for Marijuana Addiction 240

9.1 Pharmacology of Marijuana Addiction 241

9.2 CB1 Antagonist: Rimonabant 243

9.3 Medication Development 244

10 Designer Drugs 252

10.1 Cathinone Drugs 253

10.2 MDMA ECSTASY 256

10.3 Cannabinoid Designer Drugs 257

Conclusion 259

Appendix A Further Reading for Chemists Interested in a More Detailed Understanding of Addiction and the Central Nervous System 261

Appendix B Public Databases and Sources of Information of Interest to Medicinal Chemistry Addiction Researchers 262

Appendix C Glossary of Terms Used in Addiction Research 263

Appendix D Glossary of Terms Used in Medicinal Chemistry 271

References 290

Index 335

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Brian S. Fulton
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