Blended. Using Disruptive Innovation to Improve Schools

  • ID: 2882916
  • Book
  • 336 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Praise for Blended

"There is a lot of hope and misunderstanding around online learning and its relation to in–person learning. Blended clearly shows that it isn′t an either–or proposition, but rather that the most likely future is one in which online experiences enrich the physical ones and vice versa. Even more, the book gives concrete examples of how educators, parents, and learners can move us all to a world where technology makes the classroom more human, not less."
SALMAN KHAN, founder, Khan Academy; author, The One World Schoolhouse: Education Reimagined

"Blended is the essential guide to move beyond the rhetoric about personalized learning and toward a practical strategy. It provides a powerful framework that challenges conventional wisdom about how schools should respond to the digital age."
JEB BUSH, chairman, Foundation for Excellence in Education; former governor, Florida

"The authors′ real genius is in using research and theory to take the guesswork out of moving our schools forward into the twenty–first century."
JIM HUNT, foundation chair, The Hunt Institute; former governor, North Carolina

"Teachers will play a critical role in the transition to blended learning. This book gives a roadmap for including educators in the design of blended learning and for thinking through ways to empower great teachers."
VICKI PHILLIPS, director of education, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

"Several years ago Michael Horn told us in Disrupting Class how online learning would rapidly affect modern teaching and learning. In Blended, Horn and Staker move from prediction to practice, detailing through solid research, observation, and case studies how blended learning is transforming traditional schools into 24–7 learning centers."
BOB WISE, president, Alliance for Excellent Education; former governor, West Virginia

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List of Videos xi

Foreword xv

Clayton M. Christensen

Acknowledgments xxi

About the Authors xxv

Introduction 1

Pattern of Disruptive Innovation 2

Disruptive Innovation and Online Learning 3

The Factory–Based Model of Schooling 5

Student–Centered Learning 8

Why Schools Are Reaching a Tipping Point 11

Building a Field of Experts 17

What You ll Find in This Book 18

PART 1 Understanding 29

1 What Is Blended Learning? 31

Online Learning s Upward March 32

What Blended Learning Is and Isn t 34

Models of Blended Learning 37

Mixing of Blended Models 52

To Sum Up 53

Appendix 1.1: Discussion of Key Terms 54

Appendix 1.2: K 12 Blended–Learning Taxonomy 55

2 Are All Classrooms Going to Blend? 67

The Theory of Hybrids 69

Is Blended Learning Disruptive? 71

Hybrid Models of Blended Learning 73

Disruptive Models of Blended Learning 76

Foreseeing the K 12 Education Revolution 77

What Is to Become of Schools? 79

To Sum Up 85

PART 2 Mobilizing 93

3 Start with the Rallying Cry 95

The Alternative to Cramming 98

Defining the Problem or Stating the Goal 99

Should Leaders Focus on Sustaining or Disruptive Rallying Cries? 103

How to Identify Core Opportunities 104

How to Identify Nonconsumption Opportunities 105

Threats versus Opportunities 107

To Sum Up 109

4 Organize to Innovate 113

A Framework for Team Design 114

Applying the Team Framework to Schools 120

Using Multiple Types of Teams 129

The Cost of Getting ItWrong 130

To Sum Up 131

PART 3 Designing 135

5 Motivate the Students 137

The Importance of Student Willingness to Learn 138

The Jobs–to–Be–Done Theory 139

Students Jobs to Be Done 143

The Architecture of a Job 145

Fulfilling the Job for Students 146

What to Integrate, and How 152

Blended Learning s Role in Fulfilling Student Jobs 155

The Danger of Asking Students to Change Jobs 156

To Sum Up 157

6 Elevate Teaching 169

Designing the Teacher Role from the Student Perspective 170

Designing the Teacher Role from the Teacher Perspective 176

Doing Right for Students and Teachers 181

To Sum Up 182

7 Design the Virtual and Physical Setup 189

Product Architecture and Interfaces 190

The Shift in Personal Computer Architecture 192

The Shift toward Modularity in Education 194

Integrated versus Modular Online Content 195

Integrated versus Modular Operating Systems 203

Integrated versus Modular Physical Space 205

Aligning Your Strategy to Your Circumstances 208

To Sum Up 209

Appendix 7.1: Snapshot of Online Content in Use Among K 12

Blended Programs 210

8 Choose the Model 219

Match the Model to the Type of Problem 221

Match the Model to the Type of Team 224

Match the Model to the Desired Student Experience 226

Match the Model to the Role of the Teacher 229

Match the Model to the Physical Space 232

Match the Model to the Availability of Internet–Enabled Devices 234

Prioritizing Options and Making the Selection 237

Moving toward Multiple Models 237

To Sum Up 240

Appendix 8.1: Which Blended–Learning Model Matches Your

Circumstances Best? 241

PART 4 Implementing 247

9 Create the Culture 249

What Is Culture? 250

The Power of Culture for Children 252

The Power of Culture in Schools 253

How to Shape Culture 254

The Power of Culture in Blended–Learning Implementations 256

It s Not Too Late 260

To Sum Up 261

10 Discover Your Way to Success 265

Discovery–Driven Planning 266

Start with the Outcomes 268

Create an Assumptions Checklist 269

Implement a Plan To Learn More 273

Should We Go Forward, Change, or Shelve the Plan? 276

To Sum Up 277

11 Conclusion 281

Implement over Time 282

Blended Learning Is a Team Sport 283

Understand, Mobilize, Design, Implement 285

Appendix: Questions for Discussion 289

Index 295

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MICHAEL B. HORN is co–founder and executive director of Education at the Clayton Christensen Institute for Disruptive Innovation and co–author of Disrupting Class: How Disruptive Innovation Will Change the Way the World Learns (McGraw–Hill, 2008) with Clayton Christensen and Curtis Johnson. His insights have been highlighted in his recurring column for Forbes as well as The Washington Post, The Economist, Huffington Post, and Education Week.

HEATHER STAKER is senior research fellow in Education at the Clayton Christensen Institute for Disruptive Innovation. One of the world′s foremost experts on K 12 blended learning, she has appeared on radio, television, and in legislative hearings across the country as a spokesperson for harnessing innovation to improve schools.

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