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Eco-friendly Innovations in Electricity Transmission and Distribution Networks. Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy

  • ID: 2936221
  • Book
  • December 2014
  • 442 Pages
  • Elsevier Science and Technology
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Electricity transmission and distribution (T&D) networks carry electricity from generation sites to demand sites. With the increasing penetration of decentralised and renewable energy systems, in particular variable power sources such as wind turbines, and the rise in demand-side technologies, the importance of innovative products has never been greater. Eco-design approaches and standards in this field are aimed at improving the performance as well as the overall sustainability of T&D network equipment. This multidisciplinary reference provides coverage of developments and lessons-learned in the fields of eco-design of innovation from product-specific issues to system approaches, including case studies featuring problem-solving methodologies applicable to electricity transmission and distribution networks.

- Discusses key environmental issues and methodologies for eco-design, and applies this to development of equipment for electricity transmission and distribution.- Provides analysis of using and assessing advanced equipment for wind energy systems.- Includes reviews of the energy infrastructure for demand-side management in the US and Scandinavia.

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- Related titles - Dedication - List of contributors - Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy - Acknowledgements - Introduction - Part One. Eco-design and innovation in electricity transmission and distribution networks- 1. The implications of climate change and energy security for global electricity supply: The Energy (R)evolution- 1.1. Greenhouse emissions and climate change- 1.2. Primary energy resources- 1.3. The fossil fuels- 1.4. Carbon dioxide capture and storage and clean coal technologies- 1.5. Uranium resources and nuclear energy- 1.6. Contribution of all fossil and nuclear fuels - 1.7. What is the solution for saving the planet?- 1.8. Development of global energy demand- 1.9. The hydrogen economy - 1.10. Conclusions- 2. Key performance indicators in assessing new technology for electricity transmission and distribution networks- 2.1. Introduction- 2.2. Key performance indicators to assess the environmental impact of transmission and distribution networks- 2.3. Test networks- 2.4. A methodology for evaluating KPIs- 2.5. Results- 3. Improving European Union ecodesign standardization- 3.1. Standardization policy- 3.2. Product ecodesign- 3.3. Ecodesign methodology- 3.4. Ecodesign for energy-related products: The new scope of the ErP directive- 3.5. Applying ecodesign directive to electricity transmission and distribution technology: power transformers- 3.6. Methodology for ecodesign of energy-related products (MeerP)- 3.7. Two European initiatives on resource efficiency and critical raw materials- 3.8. The product environmental footprint- 3.9. Future trends- References and further reading- List of acronyms used- 4. Approaches for multi-objective optimization in the ecodesign of electric systems- 4.1. Introduction- 4.2. Ecodesign principles- 4.3. Matching models and algorithms- 4.4. Multi-objective algorithms and techniques- 4.5. Optimization problem transformation techniques- 4.6. Summary: using different techniques- 5. Strategic environmental assessment of power plants and electricity transmission and distribution networks- 5.1. Introduction- 5.2. SEA in different countries- 5.3. The contribution of SEA to sustainability- 5.4. SEA in the power planning process- 5.5. Stages of SEA- 5.6. SEA indicators: measuring differences within power plan alternatives- 5.7. Conclusions and future trends- 5.8. Sources of further information and advice - Part Two. Application and assessment of advanced equipment for electricity transmission and distribution networks- 6. Life cycle assessment of equipment for electricity transmission and distribution networks- 6.1. Introduction- 6.2. Introduction to life cycle assessment- 6.3. Applying LCA in practice: power transformer- 6.4. Applying LCA in practice: a 765 kV AC transmission system- 6.5. Conclusions- 7. Superconducting DC cables to improve the efficiency of electricity transmission and distribution networks: An overview- 7.1. Introduction- 7.2. Superconducting cable systems: key elements- 7.3. Superconducting materials- 7.4. Cable conductors and electrical insulation- 7.5. Cable cryostat- 7.6. Cable terminations and joints- 7.7. Cryogenic machine- 7.8. Superconductive cable system configurations- 7.9. Power dissipation sources in the superconducting system- 7.10. Power losses from AC ripples- 7.11. Comparing power dissipation in a DC superconducting system to a conventional system- 7.12. Opportunities for DC superconducting cables- 7.13. Conclusions- 8. Improving energy efficiency in railway powertrains- 8.1. Introduction- 8.2. Upstream design of an onboard energy storage system- 8.3. Techniques to optimize the design of the ESS- 8.4. Downstream optimization of a transformer and its rectifier- 8.5. Techniques to optimize the design of the transformer and rectifier- 8.6. Conclusion- 9. Reducing the environmental impacts of power transmission lines- 9.1. Introduction- 9.2. Environmental challenges relating to grid lines- 9.3. Environmental legislation and guidelines- 9.4. The importance of stakeholder engagement- 9.5. The challenges of implementing nature legislation- 9.6. Biodiversity along grid lines- 9.7. Best practice approaches- 9.8. Conclusion- 10. Ecodesign of equipment for electricity distribution networks- 10.1. Introduction- 10.2. Legislation and standards in Europe relating to energy-efficient design- 10.3. The product environmental profile program for energy-efficient design- 10.4. Typical electricity distribution network equipment- 10.5. End-of-life management of electricity distribution network equipment- 10.6. Case study: managing the recycling of medium-voltage switchgear- 10.7. Meeting PEP and LCA requirements for electricity distribution network equipment- 10.8. Case study: LCA of medium-voltage switchgear- 10.9. Future trends- List of acronyms - Part Three. Application and assessment of advanced wind energy systems- 11. Condition monitoring and fault diagnosis in wind energy systems- 11.1. Introduction- 11.2. Wind turbines- 11.3. Maintenance theory- 11.4. Condition monitoring of WTs- 11.5. Sensory signals and signal processing methods- 11.6. Conclusions- List of acronyms- 12. Development of permanent magnet generators to integrate wind turbines into electricity transmission and distribution networks- 12.1. Introduction- 12.2. Wind turbine power conversion: the induction generator- 12.3. Wind turbine power conversion: the synchronous generator- 12.4. Improving reliability: the direct drive permanent magnet generator- 12.5. Optimizing direct drive permanent magnet generators- 12.6. Comparing different configurations- 12.7. Conclusion and future trends- 13. Advanced AC and DC technologies to connect offshore wind farms into electricity transmission and distribution networks- 13.1. Introduction- 13.2. Wind power development and wind turbine technologies- 13.3. Wind farm configuration and wind power collection- 13.4. Multiterminal HVDC for offshore wind power transmission- 13.5. Control of centralised AC/DC converter for offshore wind farms with induction generators- 13.6. Future trends- 14. DC grid architectures to improve the integration of wind farms into electricity transmission and distribution networks- 14.1. Introduction- 14.2. Benefits of using a pure DC grid- 14.3. Current wind farm architectures- 14.4. Case study to compare different architectures- 14.5. Strengths and weaknesses of different architectures- 14.6. Availability estimation- 14.7. Overall comparison- 14.8. Conclusions - Part Four. Smart grid and demand-side management for electricity transmission and distribution networks- 15. Improved energy demand management in buildings for smart grids: The US experience- 15.1. Introduction- 15.2. Smart energy infrastructure: an overview- 15.3. Core technologies- 15.4. Architectures for building-to-grid communications- 15.5. Building applications- 15.6. Case studies: building-to-grid applications for peak load reduction- 15.7. Case studies: building-to-grid applications for integration of renewable power sources- 15.8. Conclusions and future trends- 16. Smart meters for improved energy demand management: The Nordic experience- 16.1. Introduction- 16.2. The Schneider Electric experience of AMI deployment in Sweden and Finland- 16.3. Planning the deployment of a massive AMI- 16.4. Rollout of the AMI platform into milestone areas- 16.5. Launching the operation of the AMI platform- 16.6. Leveraging a smart metering infrastructure to add value- 16.7. Conclusions- 17. Managing charging of electric vehicles in electricity transmission and distribution networks- 17.1. Introduction- 17.2. EV charging: issues and opportunities for the distribution grid- 17.3. Impact of FR charging strategies on the distribution grid- 17.4. Smart VR charging strategies: a key paradigm for electric transportation- 17.5. Smart grid for vehicle charging: a case study- 17.6. Conclusions- 18. The Serhatköy photovoltaic power plant and the future of renewable energy on the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus: Integrating solar photovoltaic and wind farms into electricity transmission and distribution networks- 18.1. Background- 18.2. Electricity sector- 18.3. The solar project- 18.4. The tender process and awarding of the contract- 18.5. Construction of the plant- 18.6. Performance of the plant- 18.7. Recommendations for future improvements to the Serhatköy power plant- 18.8. The Intergovernmental Programme for Climate Change- 18.9. The future- 18.10. Conclusions - Index - Plate Captions List
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Bessede, Jean-Luc
J-L. Bessede is R&D Partnership Director at Schneider Electric
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