Practical Guide to Polyethylene

  • ID: 295079
  • Book
  • 184 pages
  • Smithers Information Ltd
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Shampoo bottles, children's toys, and even bullet-proof vests. This Practical Guide provides information about every aspect of polyethylene production and use in a reader-friendly form. It discusses the advantages and disadvantages of working with polyethylene, offering practical comment on the available types of polyethylene, properties and in-service performance, and processing.

The Practical Guide begins with general background to the polyethylene family, with price, production and market share information. It describes the basic types of polyethylene including virgin & filled polyethylene, copolymers, block and graft polymers and composites, and reviews the types of additives used in polyethylene. Polyethylenes offer a wide range of properties due to differences in structure and molecular weight, and the Practical Guide gives the low down on the properties, including, amongst others, rheological, mechanical, chemical, thermal, and electrical properties.

Design of a polymeric product for a certain application is a complex task, and this is particularly true for polyethylene with its variety of forms and available processing methods. This Practical Guide describes the processing issues and conditions for the wide range of techniques used for polyethylene, and it also considers post-processing and assembly issues. It offers guidance on product design and development issues, including materials selection.

The Practical Guide to Polyethylene is an indispensable resource for everyone working with this material

Chapters:

1 Introduction
Provides a general introduction to the subject and gives information on price, production and market share.

2 Basic Types
Describes the basic types of PE available including filled PE, copolymers, block and graft polymers and composites.

3 Properties
Gives the low down on the properties of PE. This section includes: density, molecular weight and molecular weight distribution, crystallinity, thermal properties, mechanical properties, electrical properties, optical properties, surface properties, hardness and scratch resistance, abrasion resistance, friction, acoustic properties, degradation, biological behaviour, biocompatibility, wear, molecular properties, performance in service, permeability, and crosslinking.

4 Additives
Lists information about the types of additives used with PE including: antioxidants, inhibitors, stabilisers, masterbatches, antistatic agents, EMI/radiofrequency shielding, antifogging agents, biocides, blowing agents, biosensitisers, coupling agents, crosslinking agents, flame retardants, fillers/reinforcements/slip and antiblocking agents, metals deactivators, nucleating agents, and pigments and colorants.

5 Rheological Behaviour
Covers rheological behaviour including molar mass effects, steady flow properties, melt flow rates/index, viscosity/shear rate, dynamic rheological properties, chain structure effects and multiphase systems/inhomogeneous products.

6 Processing of Polyethylene Describes processing of PE including, injection moulding, extrusion, blow and stretched moulding, compression moulding, sintering and coating, thermoforming/vacuum forming, rotational moulding, transfer moulding, casting, and recycling and recyclates.

7 Considerations of Product Design and Development
Covers product design and development, including: materials selection, processing techniques, film blowing thermoforming, blow moulding, rotational moulding compression moulding and injection moulding.

8 Post-Processing and Assembly
Covers post processing and assembly. This includes: joining, assembly/fabrication, machining, joints, mechanical fastening, and decorating.

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1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Polymerisation Processes
1.2 Strengths
1.3 Material Density/Percentage Crystallinity
1.4 Weaknesses
1.5 Applications
1.6 Material Price
1.7 Market Share and Consumption Trends
1.8 Major Suppliers
2 BASIC TYPES
2.1 Homopolymers and Olefin Copolymers
2.1.1 Low-Density Polyethylene (LDPE)
2.1.2 High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE) Resins
2.1.3 High-Density Polyethylene
2.1.4 Medium-Density Polyethylene (MDPE)
2.1.5 Linear Polyethylenes
2.1.6 Very Low-Density Polyethylene (VLDPE) Resins
2.1.7 Ultralow-Density Polyethylene (ULDPE) Resins
2.1.8 Metallocene Polyethylene (mPE)
2.1.9 Bimodal Grades
2.1.10 UV-Stabilised Grades
2.1.11 Crosslinked Polyethylene (XPE)
2.1.12 Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE)
2.1.13 Ultrahigh-Modulus Polyethylene
2.1.14 Polyethylene Foam Resins
2.2 Other Grades
2.3 Filled Grades of Polyethylene
2.4 Copolymers
2.4.1 Copolymers with alpha-Olefins or LLDPE
2.4.2 Ethylene–Propylene Copolymers (Polyallomer)
2.4.3 Copolymers with Cyclo-olefins
2.4.4 Copolymers with Vinylic Monomers
2.4.5 Ethylene Ionomers
2.4.6 Block and Graft Copolymers [6]
2.4.7 Primacor Copolymers
2.4.8 Chlorinated Polyethylene (CPE)
2.5 Blends
2.6 Composites

3 PROPERTIES
3.1 Density
3.2 Molecular Weight and Molecular Weight Distribution
3.3 Crystallinity
3.3.1 Melting
3.3.2 Orientation
3.4 Thermal Properties
3.4.1 Specific Volume
3.4.2 Specific Heat
3.4.3 Glass Transition Temperature and Melting/Crystallisation Temperature
3.4.4 Maximum Continuous Use Temperature
3.4.5 Heat Deflection Temperatures and Softening Points
3.4.6 Brittleness and Brittle Temperature
3.4.7 Thermal Conductivity
3.4.8 Thermal Expansion
3.5 Mechanical Properties
3.5.1 Short-term Mechanical Properties: Static Mechanical Properties
3.5.2 Dynamic Fatigue
3.5.3 Mechanical Properties of Filled Grades
3.5.4 Biaxial Orientation
3.6 Electrical Properties
3.7 Optical Properties
3.7.1 Transparency
3.7.2 Gloss
3.7.3 Haze: Cloudy or Milky Appearance
3.8 Surface Properties
3.8.1 Adhesion, Frictional Behaviour, and Blocking
3.8.2 Modification of Surface Properties
3.9 Hardness and Scratch Resistance
3.10 Abrasion Resistance
3.11 Friction
3.12 Acoustic Properties
3.13 Degradation Behaviour
3.13.1 Photo-oxidation
3.13.2 Thermal Degradation
3.13.3 Degradation by High-energy Radiation
3.13.4 Biodegradation
3.14 Biological Behaviour
3.14.1 Assessment Under Food and Water Legislation
3.14.2 Resistance to Micro-organisms
3.14.3 Physiological Compatibility
3.15 Biocompatibility
3.16 Wear Properties
3.17 Molecular Properties
3.17.1 IR Spectra
3.17.2 Crystals
3.17.3 Radii of Gyration
3.17.4 Unit Cell Parameters
3.17.5 X-ray Scattering
3.18 Performance in Service [67]
3.18.1 Thermal and Oxidative Stability
3.18.2 Stability to Sunlight and UV Radiation
3.18.3 Chemical Resistance
3.18.4 Environmental Stress Cracking Resistance
3.19 Permeability
3.19.1 Permeability to Water and Other Liquids
3.19.2 Permeability to Gases
3.20 Crosslinking and Sterilisation
3.21 Correlations Between Polyethylene Properties

4 ADDITIVES
4.1 Antioxidants, Inhibitors, or Heat Stabilisers
4.2 Masterbatches
4.3 Antistatic Agents
4.4 Electromagnetic/Radio Frequency Interference Shielding
4.5 Antifogging Agents
4.6 Biocides
4.7 Blowing Agents
4.8 Biosensitisers and Photosensitisers
4.9 Conducting Agents
4.10 Coupling Agents
4.11 Crosslinking Agents
4.12 Flame Retardants
4.13 Fillers and Reinforcements
4.14 Slip and Antiblocking Agents
4.15 Metal Deactivators and Acid Scavengers
4.16 Nucleating Agents
4.17 Pigments and Colorants
4.18 Additives Used for Polyethylene Fibre Production
4.19 Other Additives

5 RHEOLOGICAL BEHAVIOUR
5.1 Molar Mass Effects
5.2 Steady Flow Rheological Properties
5.2.1 Melt Flow Rate or Melt Flow Index
5.2.2 Viscosity versus Shear Rate
5.3 Dynamic Rheological Properties
5.4 Chain Structure Effects
5.4.1 Linear Chains
5.4.2 Branched Chains
5.5 Multiphase Systems: Inhomogeneous Products

6 PROCESSING OF POLYETHYLENE
6.1 Injection Moulding
6.2 Extrusion
6.2.1 Film Extrusion
6.2.2 Co-extrusion
6.2.3 Sheet Extrusion
6.2.4 Extrusion of Compact and Expanded (Foamed) Polyethylene
6.2.5 Ram or Cold Extrusion
6.2.6 Extrusion of Wire and Cable Covering
6.2.7 Extrusion of Monofilament
6.2.8 Cast or Blown Film
6.2.9 Stretched Tapes
6.2.10 Pipes, Tube, and Conduits
6.3 Blow and Stretch Blow Moulding
6.4 Fibre and Filament
6.5 Compression Moulding
6.6 Sintering and Coating
6.7 Thermoforming and Vacuum Forming
6.8 Rotational Moulding and Transfer Moulding
6.8.1 Rotational Moulding
6.8.2 Transfer Moulding
6.9 Casting
6.10 Recycling and Recyclates

7 CONSIDERATIONS OF PRODUCT DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Material Selection
7.3 Processing Techniques
7.3.1 Extrusion
7.3.2 Film Blowing
7.3.3 Thermoforming
7.3.4 Blow Moulding
7.3.5 Rotational Moulding
7.3.6 Compression Moulding
7.3.7 Injection Moulding
7.4 Product Design
7.5 Assembly
7.6 Mould Design

8 POST-PROCESSING AND ASSEMBLY
8.1 Joining
8.1.1 Welding
8.1.2 Adhesive Gluing
8.1.3 Sealability
8.2 Assembly and Fabrication
8.2.1 Machining
8.2.2 Snap-Fit Joints
8.2.3 Mechanical Fastening
8.3 Decorating
8.3.1 Printing and Painting
8.3.2 Metallising and Electroplating
8.3.3 Appliqués

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