Water at the Surface of Earth

  • ID: 2986259
  • Book
  • 557 Pages
  • Elsevier Science and Technology
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Water at the Surface of the Earth: An Introduction to Ecosystem Hydrodynamics provides an introduction to the ways in which biological, physical, cultural, and urban systems at the surface of the earth operate, with a particular focus on the hydrodynamics of ecosystems, i.e., water and its association with other forms of matter, including pollutants, and with several forms of energy. The chapter sequence in this book follows the downward progress of water from the lower atmosphere, through ecosystems at the earth's surface, through the soil and mantle rock, to the ""waters under the earth."" In other words, the book begins with input of water to ecosystems, then describes how it is processed in these systems, and ends with the liquid water yield from them.
The book first discusses storms in the atmosphere. These are systems that convert inflows of water vapor into outflows of raindrops and snowflakes that are precipitated to the underlying surface. This is followed by separate chapters on how water is delivered from the atmosphere to surface ecosystems; water budgets at the surface and in the soil; evaporation from these systems back to the atmosphere; water in the local air and rocks; and horizontal movement of water transformed by ecosystems where the preceding storages and fluxes were located.

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Preface

Chapter I Introduction


Just What is the Earth's Surface?


The Budget Idea


Water in Systems


Water Supplied by the Atmosphere to the Earth's Surface


Chapter II Atmospheric Vapor Flows and Atmospheric Storms


Water Vapor and Its Movement over the Earth's Surface


Atmospheric Storms


Sizes and Movement of Atmospheric Storms


Atmospheric Storms: Causes of Variability in Rainfall


References


Chapter III Point Rainfall-The Delivery of Water to an Ecosystem


Measuring Rain and Snow


The Dimensions of Point Rainfall


The Frequency of Precipitation-Intensity Events


Water Delivery to Ecosystems


References


Chapter IV Hydrologic Storms


The Area of Hydrologic Storms


Areal Syntheses


The Episodic Occurrence of Hydrologic Storms


Closing


References


Chapter V Large-Scale Organization of Rainfall


Organization of Storms in Time


Spatial Grouping of Rainfall


Spatial Pattern of Annual Precipitation


Areal Pattern of Long-Term Changes in Rainfall


Associated Mass Fluxes


Time and Space Organization of the Water Delivered to Ecosystems


References


Chapter VI Reception of Water by Ecosystems


Ecosystem Hydrodynamics


Delivery of Rain and Snow to Vegetation


Interception of Water by Vegetation


Storage of Rain and Snow on Foliage during Storms


The Outflows from Interception Storage of Rain and Snow


Evaporation as a Mode of Outflow from Interception Storage


Water Intercepted by Litter


Areal Redistribution of Water by Vegetation above the Soil


References


Chapter VII Water Detained on the Soil Surface


Snow Cover


Liquid Water on the Ground


Outflows from Detention Storage


References


Chapter VIII Infiltration of Water into the Soil of an Ecosystem


The Soil as Environment of Water


Infiltration of Water into the Soil


Influences of Vegetation on Infiltration


Time Differences in Infiltration


Infiltrated Water in Ecosystems


References


Chapter IX Soil Moisture


Soil-Moisture Bookkeeping


Soil-Moisture Distributions in Space


Time Variations of Soil Moisture


Freezing and Melting of Soil Water


Outflows of Water from the Soil


References


Chapter X Evaporation from Wet Surfaces


Determining Evaporation Rates


Evaporation from Deep Water Bodies


Evaporation from Shallow Water Bodies


Evaporation from a Wet Soil Surface


Evaporation


References


Chapter XI Evaporation from Well-Watered Ecosystems


Transpiration of Water from Leaves


Evapotranspiration from Plant Communities


Empirical Patterns of Potential Evapotranspiration


Evaporation Differs with Ecosystems


References


Chapter XII Evaporation from Drying Ecosystems


Bare Soil Surfaces


Evapotranspiration from a Drying Soil-Vegetation System


Variations in Evapotranspiration over Time


Large-Scale Patterns


The Era of Evaporation


References


Chapter XIII Water in the Local Air


Water Vapor in the Local Air


Visible Forms of Water in the Local Air


Condensation of Vapor on the Underlying Surface


References


Chapter XIV Percolation from Ecosystems


Shallow Percolation


Deeper Percolation


Mass Transports by Percolating Water


Significance of Percolation


Percolation and Recharge


References


Chapter XV Groundwater and Its Outflows into Local Ecosystems


The Environments of Groundwater


Groundwater Recharge


The Volume of Stored Underground Water


Mass Budgets Associated with Groundwater


Local Outflows of Water from Underground Storage


Artificial Outflows from Underground Storage


Groundwater Budgets


References


Chapter XVI Surface Transports from Ecosystems


Movement of Snow


Gravity-Powered Movement of Liquid Water


Other Forms of Mass Transport Associated with the Flow of Water at and near the Surface


Time Variations in Off-Site Flow


Off-Site Flows from Ecosystems


References


Chapter XVII Off-Site Yield of Ecosystems


Outflows from Groundwater Storage


Water Yield as Associated with Biological Yield


Total Off-Site Movement of Water


Total Yield


References


Chapter XVIII Water in Ecosystems


Environments of Water in Ecosystems


Unknowns and Uncertainties in Water Budgets


Patterns of Distribution


Water is Everywhere


References


Index


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Miller, David M.
Deptartment of Cell Biology
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