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Water at the Surface of Earth

  • ID: 2986259
  • Book
  • 557 Pages
  • Elsevier Science and Technology
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Water at the Surface of the Earth: An Introduction to Ecosystem Hydrodynamics provides an introduction to the ways in which biological, physical, cultural, and urban systems at the surface of the earth operate, with a particular focus on the hydrodynamics of ecosystems, i.e., water and its association with other forms of matter, including pollutants, and with several forms of energy. The chapter sequence in this book follows the downward progress of water from the lower atmosphere, through ecosystems at the earth's surface, through the soil and mantle rock, to the ""waters under the earth."" In other words, the book begins with input of water to ecosystems, then describes how it is processed in these systems, and ends with the liquid water yield from them.
The book first discusses storms in the atmosphere. These are systems that convert inflows of water vapor into outflows of raindrops and snowflakes that are precipitated to the underlying surface. This is followed by separate chapters on how water is delivered from the atmosphere to surface ecosystems; water budgets at the surface and in the soil; evaporation from these systems back to the atmosphere; water in the local air and rocks; and horizontal movement of water transformed by ecosystems where the preceding storages and fluxes were located.

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Chapter I Introduction

Just What is the Earth's Surface?

The Budget Idea

Water in Systems

Water Supplied by the Atmosphere to the Earth's Surface

Chapter II Atmospheric Vapor Flows and Atmospheric Storms

Water Vapor and Its Movement over the Earth's Surface

Atmospheric Storms

Sizes and Movement of Atmospheric Storms

Atmospheric Storms: Causes of Variability in Rainfall


Chapter III Point Rainfall-The Delivery of Water to an Ecosystem

Measuring Rain and Snow

The Dimensions of Point Rainfall

The Frequency of Precipitation-Intensity Events

Water Delivery to Ecosystems


Chapter IV Hydrologic Storms

The Area of Hydrologic Storms

Areal Syntheses

The Episodic Occurrence of Hydrologic Storms



Chapter V Large-Scale Organization of Rainfall

Organization of Storms in Time

Spatial Grouping of Rainfall

Spatial Pattern of Annual Precipitation

Areal Pattern of Long-Term Changes in Rainfall

Associated Mass Fluxes

Time and Space Organization of the Water Delivered to Ecosystems


Chapter VI Reception of Water by Ecosystems

Ecosystem Hydrodynamics

Delivery of Rain and Snow to Vegetation

Interception of Water by Vegetation

Storage of Rain and Snow on Foliage during Storms

The Outflows from Interception Storage of Rain and Snow

Evaporation as a Mode of Outflow from Interception Storage

Water Intercepted by Litter

Areal Redistribution of Water by Vegetation above the Soil


Chapter VII Water Detained on the Soil Surface

Snow Cover

Liquid Water on the Ground

Outflows from Detention Storage


Chapter VIII Infiltration of Water into the Soil of an Ecosystem

The Soil as Environment of Water

Infiltration of Water into the Soil

Influences of Vegetation on Infiltration

Time Differences in Infiltration

Infiltrated Water in Ecosystems


Chapter IX Soil Moisture

Soil-Moisture Bookkeeping

Soil-Moisture Distributions in Space

Time Variations of Soil Moisture

Freezing and Melting of Soil Water

Outflows of Water from the Soil


Chapter X Evaporation from Wet Surfaces

Determining Evaporation Rates

Evaporation from Deep Water Bodies

Evaporation from Shallow Water Bodies

Evaporation from a Wet Soil Surface



Chapter XI Evaporation from Well-Watered Ecosystems

Transpiration of Water from Leaves

Evapotranspiration from Plant Communities

Empirical Patterns of Potential Evapotranspiration

Evaporation Differs with Ecosystems


Chapter XII Evaporation from Drying Ecosystems

Bare Soil Surfaces

Evapotranspiration from a Drying Soil-Vegetation System

Variations in Evapotranspiration over Time

Large-Scale Patterns

The Era of Evaporation


Chapter XIII Water in the Local Air

Water Vapor in the Local Air

Visible Forms of Water in the Local Air

Condensation of Vapor on the Underlying Surface


Chapter XIV Percolation from Ecosystems

Shallow Percolation

Deeper Percolation

Mass Transports by Percolating Water

Significance of Percolation

Percolation and Recharge


Chapter XV Groundwater and Its Outflows into Local Ecosystems

The Environments of Groundwater

Groundwater Recharge

The Volume of Stored Underground Water

Mass Budgets Associated with Groundwater

Local Outflows of Water from Underground Storage

Artificial Outflows from Underground Storage

Groundwater Budgets


Chapter XVI Surface Transports from Ecosystems

Movement of Snow

Gravity-Powered Movement of Liquid Water

Other Forms of Mass Transport Associated with the Flow of Water at and near the Surface

Time Variations in Off-Site Flow

Off-Site Flows from Ecosystems


Chapter XVII Off-Site Yield of Ecosystems

Outflows from Groundwater Storage

Water Yield as Associated with Biological Yield

Total Off-Site Movement of Water

Total Yield


Chapter XVIII Water in Ecosystems

Environments of Water in Ecosystems

Unknowns and Uncertainties in Water Budgets

Patterns of Distribution

Water is Everywhere



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Miller, David M.
Deptartment of Cell Biology
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