The Tax Law of Charitable Giving. 5th Edition. Wiley Nonprofit Authority

  • ID: 3024958
  • Book
  • 928 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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A completely updated guide to the laws and regulations governing charitable giving

This fully updated Fifth Edition of The Tax Law of Charitable Giving is the definitive resource for nonprofit lawyers, accountants, and fundraising professionals charged with navigating the increasingly complex maze of charitable giving regulations. This new edition includes:

  • Detailed documentation and citations, including references to regulations, rulings, cases, and tax literature
  • An exhaustive index allowing for quick and easy reference
  • Annual supplements to keep readers apprised of the latest developments affecting tax–exempt healthcare organizations
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Preface xv

Book Citations xxi

PART ONE Introduction to the Tax Law of Charitable Giving

1 Charitable Giving Law: Basic Concepts 3

1.1 Introduction to the Charitable Contribution Deduction 3

1.2 Defining Tax–Exempt Organizations 5

1.3 Principles of Charitable Organizations Law Philosophy 8

1.4 Statistical Profile of Charitable Sector 23

1.5 Categories of Tax–Exempt Organizations 28

2 The United States Tax System: An Overview 31

2.1 Concept of Income 33

2.2 Gross Income 34

2.3 Exclusions from Income 35

2.4 Concept of Adjusted Gross Income 36

2.5 Deductions 37

2.6 Standard Deduction 39

2.7 Concept of Taxable Income 39

2.8 Taxable and Nontaxable Entities 41

2.9 Annual Accounting Period 42

2.10 Accounting Methods 43

2.11 Timing 43

2.12 Property 44

2.13 Inventory 46

2.14 Gain 47

2.15 Taxation of Income 53

2.16 Capital Assets, Gains, and Losses 58

2.17 Carryovers and Carrybacks 60

2.18 Alternative Minimum Tax 61

2.19 Depreciation 64

2.20 Capital Gains and Losses Rates 65

2.21 Taxation of Corporate Distributions 65

2.22 Accumulated Earnings and Personal Holding Company Taxes 66

2.23 Tax Credits 66

2.24 Foreign Tax Credits 67

2.25 Federal Tax Law Definition of Marriage 67

PART TWO Basics of Charitable Giving Law

3 Fundamental Concepts 71

3.1 Meaning of Gift 71

3.2 Meaning of Donor 117

3.3 Meaning of Charitable Organization 119

3.4 Public Charities and Private Foundations 131

3.5 Unrelated Business Rules 146

3.6 Factors Affecting Income Tax Deductibility of Charitable Gifts 153

3.7 Charitable Organizations Listing Reliance Rules 155

3.8 Grantor Trust Rules 157

4 Gifts of Money and Property 161

4.1 Gifts of Money 161

4.2 Gifts of Property in General 162

4.3 Gifts of Long–Term Capital Gain Property in General 164

4.4 Gifts of Ordinary Income Property 165

4.5 Certain Gifts of Capital Gain Property 170

4.6 Gifts of Property for Unrelated Use 173

4.7 Variations in Applying Property Rules 177

4.8 Step Transaction Doctrine 178

4.9 Charitable Pledges 184

5 Fundamentals of Planned Giving 187

5.1 Introduction 188

5.2 Appreciated Property Gifts 188

5.3 Planned Gifts: Core Concepts 189

5.4 Charitable Remainder Trusts 191

5.5 Pooled Income Funds 199

5.6 Charitable Gift Annuities 207

5.7 Charitable Lead Trusts 208

5.8 Planned Giving: Other Forms 211

5.9 Planned Giving and Securities Laws 212

PART THREE Charitable Giving in General

6 Timing of Charitable Deductions 217

6.1 Gifts of Money in General 219

6.2 Gifts of Money by Check 219

6.3 Gifts of Money by Credit Card 222

6.4 Gifts of Money by Telephone 222

6.5 Gifts of Securities 223

6.6 Gifts of Copyright Interest 226

6.7 Gifts by Means of Notes 226

6.8 Gifts by Letters of Credit 227

6.9 Gifts of Property Subject to Option 227

6.10 Gifts of Stock Options 228

6.11 Gifts of Credit Card Rebates 230

6.12 Gifts of Tangible Personal Property 231

6.13 Gifts of Real Property 231

6.14 Gifts by C Corporations 232

6.15 Gifts by S Corporations 233

6.16 Gifts by Partnerships 234

6.17 Gifts by Means of Internet 237

7 Percentage Limitations 239

7.1 Introduction 240

7.2 Individual s Contribution Base 243

7.3 Corporation s Taxable Income 243

7.4 Percentage Limitations: An Overview 243

7.5 Fifty Percent Limitation 246

7.6 Thirty Percent Limitation for Gifts of Certain Property 253

7.7 Electable 50 Percent Limitation 257

7.8 General 30 Percent Limitation 263

7.9 Interplay of 50 Percent/Special 30 Percent Limitations 265

7.10 Interplay of 50 Percent/General 30 Percent Limitations 266

7.11 Interplay of Special 30 Percent/General 30 Percent Limitations 268

7.12 Twenty Percent Limitation 268

7.13 Gifts for the Use of Charity 270

7.14 Blending Percentage Limitations 270

7.15 Individuals Net Operating Loss Carryovers and Carrybacks 271

7.16 Rules for Spouses 275

7.17 Information Requirements 279

7.18 Percentage Limitation for Corporations 280

7.19 Corporations Net Operating Loss Carryovers and Carrybacks 283

8 Estate and Gift Tax Considerations 287

8.1 Introduction 287

8.2 Federal Gift Tax 289

8.3 Federal Estate Tax 301

8.4 Unification of Taxes 315

8.5 Generation–Skipping Transfer Tax 316

8.6 Remainder Interests 319

8.7 Ascertainability 329

9 Special Gift Situations 333

9.1 Works of Art 334

9.2 Gems 338

9.3 Inventory 340

9.4 Scientific Research Property 352

9.5 Computer Technology or Equipment 353

9.6 License to Use Patent 355

9.7 Conservation Property 357

9.8 S Corporation Stock 380

9.9 Section 306 Stock 389

9.10 Retirement Plan Accounts 391

9.11 Commodity Futures Contracts 401

9.12 Donors Creations 403

9.13 Charity Auctions 404

9.14 Services 411

9.15 Unreimbursed Expenses 412

9.16 Limitation on Deduction for Expenses Due to Pleasure 418

9.17 Automobile Expenses 422

9.18 Use of Property 422

9.19 Bargain Sales 423

9.20 Property Subject to Debt 429

9.21 Future Interests in Tangible Personal Property 433

9.22 Contributions by Trusts 436

9.23 Partial Interests 444

9.24 Taxidermy 447

9.25 Clothing and Household Items 448

9.26 Charitable Family Limited Partnerships 448

9.27 Motor and Other Vehicles 450

9.28 Intellectual Property 457

9.29 Foreign Tax Credit 462

9.30 Subsistence Whaling Expenses 462

9.31 Public Policy Considerations 463

10 Other Aspects of Deductible Giving 471

10.1 Valuation of Property 472

10.2 Contributions by Means of an Agent 496

10.3 Gifts for the Use of Charity 497

10.4 Conditional Gifts 499

10.5 Earmarking of Gifts for Individuals 505

10.6 Alternative Minimum Tax Considerations 508

10.7 Interrelationship with Business Expense Deduction 509

10.8 Denial of Deduction for Lobbying Activities 510

10.9 Deductible Gifts to Noncharitable Organizations 511

10.10 Reallocation of Deductions 516

10.11 Charitable Giving and Funding of Terrorism 517

10.12 Statute of Limitations 518

10.13 Concept of Trust Income 518

10.14 Penalties 521

10.15 Transactions of Interest 532

PART FOUR Planned Giving

11 Valuation of Partial Interests 541

11.1 Overview of Statutory Law 541

11.2 Standard Actuarial Factors 542

11.3 General Actuarial Valuations 544

11.4 Nonstandard Actuarial Factors 547

12 Charitable Remainder Trusts 551

12.1 Definitions 552

12.2 Charitable Remainder Annuity Trust Rules 566

12.3 Charitable Remainder Unitrust Rules 580

12.4 Issues 598

12.5 Tax Treatment of Distributions 615

12.6 Division of Charitable Remainder Trusts 627

12.7 Early Terminations of Charitable Remainder Trusts 631

12.8 Taxation of Charitable Remainder Trusts 633

12.9 Mandatory Provisions 636

12.10 Private Foundation Rules 637

12.11 Wealth Replacement Trusts 639

12.12 Calculation of Charitable Deduction 646

13 Pooled Income Funds 653

13.1 Definitions 654

13.2 Qualifying Pooled Income Funds 655

13.3 Allocation of Income 661

13.4 Recognition of Gain or Loss on Transfers 665

13.5 Mandatory Provisions 666

13.6 Private Foundation Rules 667

13.7 Pass–Through of Depreciation 668

13.8 Tax Status of Fund and Beneficiaries 669

13.9 Multiorganization Pooled Income Funds 670

13.10 Comparison with Charitable Remainder Trusts 674

13.11 Charitable Contribution Deduction 675

14 Charitable Gift Annuities 677

14.1 Contract as Vehicle Form 677

14.2 Tax Treatment to Donor 678

14.3 Deferred Payment Gift Annuities 679

14.4 Estate and Gift Tax Consequences 681

14.5 Unrelated Business Income Implications 681

14.6 Unrelated Debt–Financed Income Implications 682

14.7 Contrast with Other Planned Gift Methods 683

14.8 Gift Annuities and Antitrust Laws 684

14.9 Gift Annuities and Securities Laws 685

14.10 Charitable Contribution Deduction 685

15 Other Gifts of Remainder Interests 687

15.1 Overview 687

15.2 Contributions of Remainder Interests in Personal Residence or Farm 688

15.3 Undivided Portions of Entire Interests in Property 691

16 Charitable Lead Trusts 701

16.1 General Rules 701

16.2 Income Interest 702

16.3 Income Tax Charitable Deduction 704

16.4 Tax Treatment of Charitable Lead Trusts 705

16.5 Testamentary Use of Charitable Lead Trusts 707

16.6 Percentage Limitation Rules 708

16.7 Private Foundation Rules 709

16.8 Anti–Abuse Rule Concerning Income Interests 710

16.9 Charitable Income Trusts 713

16.10 Comparison with Charitable Remainder Trusts 713

16.11 Valuing Charitable Deduction 714

17 Gifts of and Using Life Insurance 715

17.1 Introduction 715

17.2 Life Insurance Concepts 716

17.3 Charitable Giving and Insurance 719

17.4 Insurable Interest 724

17.5 Unrelated Debt–Financed Income Considerations 727

17.6 Charitable Split–Dollar Insurance Plans 728

17.7 Applicable Insurance Contract Reporting Requirements 735

PART FIVE International Charitable Giving

18 International Giving by Individuals During Lifetime 739

18.1 Introduction 739

18.2 Background 740

18.3 Earmarking and Conduit Restrictions 743

18.4 Control Over Foreign Donees 747

18.5 Summary 749

18.6 Income Tax Treaties 750

19 International Giving by Individuals through Estates 753

19.1 Introduction 753

19.2 Estate Tax Rules 754

19.3 Gift Tax Rules 760

19.4 Charitable Giving by Noncitizen Nonresidents 760

20 International Giving by Corporations 763

20.1 Corporate Gifts to U.S. Charity for Overseas Use 763

20.2 Gifts of Money from Foreign Affiliate of U.S. Parent to Overseas Charity 764

20.3 Gift of Goods or Services to Benefit Foreign Charity 765

20.4 Grants of Funds from U.S. Corporation Related Foundation to Foreign Charity 766

PART SIX Administration of Charitable Giving Programs

21 Substantiation and Appraisal Requirements 779

21.1 Introduction 779

21.2 Substantiation Requirements for Gifts of Money 780

21.3 Substantiation Requirements for Gifts of $250 or More 782

21.4 Substantiation Requirements for Noncash Gifts 792

21.5 Appraisal Requirements 795

21.6 Appraisals and Penalties 805

21.7 Appraisals of Clothing and Household Items 807

21.8 Burden of Proof Rules 807

22 Disclosure Requirements 809

22.1 Disclosure by Charitable Organizations in General 809

22.2 Quid Pro Quo Contribution Rules 814

 22.3 Disclosure by Noncharitable Organizations 818

23 Special Events, Corporate Sponsorships, and Donor–Advised Funds 823

 23.1 IRS Audit Guidelines 824

 23.2 Special Events 828

 23.3 Corporate Sponsorship Rules 830

 23.4 Donor–Advised Funds 833

24 Reporting Requirements 841

 24.1 Gift Reporting by Individuals 841

 24.2 Gift Reporting by C Corporations 842

 24.3 Gift Reporting by S Corporations 842

 24.4 Gift Reporting by Partnerships 842

 24.5 Gift Reporting by Donees in General 843

 24.6 Gift Reporting in Unrelated Business Context 848

 24.7 Reporting of Noncash Gifts in General 851

 24.8 Reporting of Gifts of Vehicles 868

 24.9 Reporting of Gifts of Intellectual Property 870

 24.10 Reporting on Dispositions of Contributed Property 871

 24.11 Personal Benefit Contract Reporting Requirements 874

 24.12 Split–Interest Trust Filing Requirements 875

25 State Fundraising Regulation 877

 25.1 State Regulation in General 877

 25.2 Historical Perspective 878

 25.3 States Police Power 880

 25.4 Basic Definitions 881

 25.5 Registration Requirements 882

 25.6 Reporting Requirements 882

 25.7 Exemptions from Regulation 883

 25.8 Fundraising Cost Limitations 884 

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BRUCE R. HOPKINS is a senior partner with the firm Polsinelli PC. He is also the author of more than 35 books, including The Law of Tax–Exempt Organizations, Tenth Edition; The Law of Fundraising, Fifth Edition; Nonprofit Law for Colleges and Universities; Nonprofit Governance; and Nonprofit Law Made Easy, as well as the monthly newsletter Bruce R. Hopkins′ Nonprofit Counsel, all published by Wiley.

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