Chemistry at Interfaces

  • ID: 3025258
  • Book
  • 283 Pages
  • Elsevier Science and Technology
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Chemistry at Interfaces provides an introduction to the fundamental concepts in interfacial chemistry. It aims to provide students and research workers who have not had training in a school of surface chemistry with the means to set up and use interfacial techniques and to interpret measurements. For this reason, more emphasis is given to experimental details and to the associated pitfalls than most other books in the field.
The book begins by considering some of the basic laws governing behavior in chemical systems and how these apply to some examples of interfacial processes. This is followed by a discussion of two specific properties oSf interfaces: the tendency to concentrate reactants and the ability to orientate molecules, thus increasing their reactivity. Separate chapters cover standards of cleanliness in interfacial work and methods to achieve them; techniques for the study of interfacial films; the kinetics of physical processes that can occur at an interface; and chemical and biological processes and reactions. The final chapter provides an overview of the wide-ranging applications of interfacial chemistry to practical problems.

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Preface

1. Introduction


2. Theoretical Concepts I


I. What Makes a Reaction Go?


II. Quantitative Measurements of Free Energy


III. Application of Thermodynamic Principles to Interfacial Phenomena


IV. The Hydrophobic Effect


Demonstrations


Problems


References


3. Theoretical Concepts II


I. The Distribution of Molecules


II. Quantum Energy Levels and Partition Functions


III. Principle of Independent Surface Action


IV. Important Intensive Properties for Interfaces


V. Distribution of Molecules between Bulk and Interface


VI. Effects of an Interface on the Orientation of Molecules


VII. Reaction Rates at Interfaces


Demonstrations


Problems


References


4. The Film Balance and the Measurement of Interfacial Pressure


I. The Problem of Purity in Interfacial Work


II. The Film Balance


III. Modifications to Basic Film Balance


IV. Spreading of Monolayers


Demonstrations


Problem


References


5. Additional Techniques I


I. Interfacial Potential


II. Interfacial Rheology


III. Transfer of Films to Solid Supports


IV. Radioactive Tracers


Demonstrations


Problems


References


6. Additional Techniques II


I. Optical Techniques


II. Solid/Fluid Interfaces


III. Forces between Surfaces


Demonstrations


Problem


References


7. Monolayers


I. Monolayer States


II. The Clausius-Clapeyron Equation


III. Equilibrium Spreading Pressure


IV. Effects of Systematic Change of Molecular Structure on Monolayer Properties


V. Monolayers at the Oil/Water Interface


VI. Monolayers of More Complex Molecules


Demonstration


Problems


References


8. Physical Processes at Interfaces


I. Adsorption


II. Desorption


III. Spreading or Two-Dimensional Dissolution


IV. Precipitation of Monolayers


V. Molecular Configurational Changes


VI. Surface Flow


VII. Transport across Interfaces


VIII. Unidimensional Interfaces


IX. General Summary


Demonstrations


Problems


References


9. Chemical Reactions


I. Kinetics of Reactions Studied by the Film Balance


II. Specific Reactions Studied in Monolayers


III. Polymerization Reactions


IV. General Features of Interfacial Reactions


V. Design of Functionalized Monolayer Systems


VI. Unidimensional and Zero-Dimensional Reactions


Demonstrations


Problem


References


10. Biological Processes and Reactions


I. Membrane-Mimetic Chemistry


II. Enzyme Reactions at Interfaces


III. Direct Studies on Model Membrane Systems


IV. The Pulmonary Surfactant


V. Thrombogenicity


Demonstrations


Problem


References


11. Applications and Future Directions


I. Biology and Medicine


II. Industrial Applications


III. New Technologies


References


Appendix


Answers to Problems


Index


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