Sustainable Retail Refrigeration

  • ID: 3048738
  • Book
  • 376 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Carbon emissions from the retail segment of the food cold chain are relatively high compared to other parts of the food cold chain. Studies have also shown that food temperature is less well controlled at the retail and consumer end of the cold chain. There is therefore considerable potential to optimize performance of refrigerated display cabinets and the refrigeration systems that are used to operate them to reduce carbon emissions and to improve food temperature control.

Sustainable Retail Refrigeration draws together world experts on retail refrigeration.  In a single resource, the authors cover the latest technologies and best current knowledge in the field. With increasing concerns about energy use and global warming gasses, retailers are increasingly being called to account for their actions.

Sustainable Retail Refrigeration is a valuable reference to manufacturers, managers and policy makers, incorporating both a design and an operational perspective.

Also available from WileyHandbook of Sustainability for the Food SciencesRubén O. Morawicki
ISBN: 978–0–8138–1735–4

Seafood Chilling, Refrigeration and Freezing: Science and TechnologyNalan Gokoglu, Pinar Yerlikaya
ISBN: 978–1–118–51218–0

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
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List of Contributors xiii

Abbreviations xv

1 Overview of Retail Display in Food Retailing 1Alan M. Foster and Judith A. Evans

1.1 History 1

1.2 Retail refrigeration and the food cold chain 3

1.2.1 Temperature 3

1.2.2 Emissions 4

1.3 Types of store 9

1.4 Purpose of retail display 9

1.5 Types of cabinet 10

1.5.1 Open ]fronted vertical display 10

1.5.2 Closed display 10

1.5.3 Food display 11

1.5.4 Refrigeration systems 11

1.6 Cabinet performance 12

1.7 Store ventilation and air conditioning 13

1.8 Design and optimization 13

1.9 Future trends 14

References 14

2 Operation, Design and Performance of Retail Display Cabinets 17Onrawee Laguerre

2.1 Introduction 17

2.2 Different types of display cabinet 18

2.3 Display cabinet operation 19

2.4 Heat transfer in display cabinets 20

2.5 Experimental study of heat transfer and airflow in a refrigerated display cabinet 22

2.5.1 Airflow visualization 22

2.5.2 Velocity field in air curtain 23

2.5.3 Temperature variations inside the display cabinet 24

2.5.4 Temperature field in the display cabinet 24

2.6 Performance of cabinets temperature and energy 26

2.6.1 Improvement of energy efficiency 27

2.6.2 Refrigerant leakage 28

2.7 Conclusion 29

References 29

3 Retail Display Testing Standards and Legislation 33Judith A. Evans

3.1 Introduction 33

3.2 Test standards for retail cabinets worldwide 34

3.2.1 ISO EN 23953:2005 + amd
2012 (Europe) 35

3.2.2 ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 72 ]2005, Method of Testing Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers (USA) 38

3.2.3 ANSI/AHRI Standard 1200 (2010) Standard for Performance Rating of Commercial Refrigerated Display Merchandisers and Storage Cabinets (USA) 40

3.2.4 AS 1731 Standard (Australia and New Zealand) 41

3.2.5 Comparison between test standards 43

3.3 Voluntary and mandatory efficiency programmes 49

3.3.1 Energy Star Program (USA) 49

3.3.2 Self ]Contained Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers, Energy Efficiency Regulations (Canada) 49

3.3.3 MEPS Requirements for Commercial Refrigeration (Australia) 51

3.3.4 UK Enhanced Capital Allowance (ECA) Scheme (UK) 51

3.3.5 Accelerated Capital Allowance (ACA) (Ireland) 52

3.3.6 Ecodesign Directive 52

3.4 International legislation affecting retail cabinets 53

3.4.1 Europe 53

3.4.2 USA 54

3.4.3 Australia/New Zealand 54

3.5 Real ]life operation of display cabinets 55

3.5.1 Impact of standards on cabinet performance in supermarkets 55

3.5.2 Reasons for variations between test standards and real ]life usage of cabinets 56

3.6 Conclusions 59

References 59

4 Airflow Optimization in Retail Cabinets and the Use of CFD Modelling to Design Cabinets 63Homayun K. Navaz, Mazyar Amin, Ramin Faramarzi, Nasser Kehtarnavaz, Kristina Kamensky and Albert Nowakowski

4.1 Introduction 63

4.2 Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) 66

4.3 Open vertical refrigerated display case model description 69

4.4 Conclusion 77

Acknowledgement 78

References 78

5 Display of Unwrapped Foods 81Tim Brown

5.1 Introduction 81

5.2 Mass transfer 81

5.2.1 The impact of weight loss on quality and operating costs 82

5.3 Common types of display cabinets for unwrapped food 84

5.3.1 Temperature and moisture control issues 85

5.3.2 Reducing weight loss and drying by humidification 86

5.4 Hygiene 88

5.4.1 Research results hygiene and bacteria 88

5.4.2 Research results impact of humidification systems 89

5.5 Conclusions 90

References 91

6 Small Commercial Display Cabinets 93Brian Fricke and Pradeep Kumar Bansal

6.1 Introduction 93

6.2 Types and applications of small integral display cabinets 93

6.2.1 Integral medium ]temperature and low ]temperature food display cabinets 94

6.2.2 Vending machines 95

6.3 Advantages and disadvantages of integral display cabinets 96

6.4 Display cabinet features 96

6.4.1 Air curtains 97

6.4.2 Doors and anti ]sweat heaters 97

6.4.3 Lighting 98

6.5 Typical vapour compression refrigeration system and components 99

6.5.1 Condenser 100

6.5.2 Capillary tube: significance, selection and control strategies 101

6.5.3 Evaporator 102

6.5.4 Compressor 104

6.6 Energy modelling of display cabinets 106

6.6.1 Compressor model 106

6.6.2 Display cabinet model 107

6.6.3 Heat exchanger model 107

6.6.4 Expansion valve model 109

6.7 Refrigerant options 110

6.8 Alternative refrigeration systems 112

6.8.1 Thermoacoustic refrigeration 112

6.8.2 Thermoelectric refrigeration 114

6.8.3 Magnetic refrigeration 115

Nomenclature 118

Greek letters 119

Subscripts 119

References 120

7 Current and Future Carbon ]saving Options for Retail Refrigeration 125Michael Kauffeld

7.1 Introduction 125

7.2 Reducing direct emissions of greenhouse gases 126

7.2.1 Gas ]tight refrigeration systems 126

7.2.2 Reduced refrigerant charge 127

7.2.3 Refrigerants without, or with very low, GWP 130

7.3 Reducing energy consumption 134

7.3.1 Heat recovery 139

7.3.2 Energy accumulation in the form of thermal storage 140

7.3.3 Intelligent system control 140

7.3.4 Glass lids and doors 141

7.3.5 Improved insulation 142

7.3.6 Infra ]red reflecting shades and baldaquins 143

7.3.7 Improved air curtain in open refrigerated multi ]decks 143

7.3.8 Improved anti ]sweat heaters, edge/rim heating, dew point control 143

7.3.9 Siphon in defrost drain 144

7.3.10 Improved lighting 144

7.3.11 Improved compressor 144

7.3.12 Two ]stage compression with intermediate cooling 145

7.3.13 Rotation speed control/variable speed drive (VSD) compressors (and pumps) 145

7.3.14 Drive compressor (partially) by expansion machine 146

7.3.15 Improved expansion valves 146

7.3.16 Expansion machine 147

7.3.17 Improved evaporator/condenser 147

7.3.18 Flooded evaporators 148

7.3.19 Defrost on demand of the evaporator 148

7.3.20 Hot gas/warm brine defrost 148

7.3.21 Improved fan and/or fan motor 149

7.3.22 Speed control of fan 150

7.3.23 Fan motor outside cabinet 150

7.3.24 Reduced condensation temperature 150

7.3.25 Free cooling 152

7.3.26 Suction line heat exchanger/internal heat exchange 152

7.3.27 Economizer 152

7.3.28 Optimized refrigerants 152

7.3.29 Correct product loading of the refrigeration/freezer units 153

7.3.30 Air humidity in the sales room 153

7.3.31 Cleaning of evaporator and condenser 153

7.3.32 Summary of measures 153

7.4 Using renewable energy 154

7.5 Discussion 155

7.6 Conclusions 155

Acknowledgement 155

References 155

8 Design of Supermarket Refrigeration Systems 159John Austin ]Davies

8.1 Introduction 159

8.2 Types of food retail store 159

8.2.1 Convenience 160

8.2.2 Supermarket 160

8.2.3 Hypermarket 160

8.2.4 Others 161

8.3 Choice of refrigeration system 161

8.3.1 Convenience 161

8.3.2 Supermarket 162

8.3.3 Hypermarket 164

8.4 Direct expansion system 164

8.5 Refrigerants 166

8.5.1 HFCs 166

8.5.2 HFOs 168

8.6 Refrigerant containment 169

8.7 Energy usage in a typical store 169

8.8 Optimizing energy efficiency through compressor selection 170

8.9 Optimizing energy efficiency through control and component selection 172

8.9.1 Defrost 172

8.9.2 Discharge and suction pressure control 174

8.9.3 Expansion device 175

8.9.4 Anti ]condensation heaters 176

8.9.5 Fan motors 176

8.9.6 Heat exchangers 177

8.9.7 Night blinds or covers 177

8.9.8 Lighting 177

8.9.9 Heat reclaim 178

8.10 Skills and training 178

9 Refrigerants and Carbon Footprint in Supermarkets 179Andy Pearson

9.1 Introduction 179

9.2 Carbon footprint 180

9.2.1 Energy efficiency and carbon footprint 180

9.2.2 Global warming potential and carbon footprint 181

9.2.3 Carbon footprint reduction 183

9.3 Use of natural refrigerants in supermarkets 183

9.3.1 Natural refrigerants in the retail market 184

9.3.2 Design of CO2 supermarket systems 185

9.3.3 Explanation of various systems, their advantages and disadvantages 186

9.3.4 Components and selection of components 191

9.3.5 Methods to achieve low energy consumption and leakage rates 192

9.4 Other natural alternatives 194

9.4.1 Hydrocarbons with water loop condensing circuit 194

9.4.2 Air cycle 195

9.4.3 Secondary systems 195

9.5 Future systems 196

References 196

10 Integration of Air Conditioning, Refrigeration and Energy Generation in Supermarkets 199Giovanni Cortella and Paola D Agaro

10.1 Introduction 199

10.2 Integration between refrigeration and air conditioning systems 202

10.2.1 Supermarket HVAC system 202

10.2.2 Interaction between refrigerated display cases and store air conditions 202

10.3 Heat recovery 206

10.3.1 Heat availability for recovery 207

10.3.2 Heat recovery strategies 208

10.3.3 Heat recovery with directly connected heat pumps 210

10.3.4 Heat recovery with water loop heat pumps (WLHPs) 212

10.3.5 Heat recovery from CO2 refrigerating systems 214

10.4 Co ]generation and tri ]generation 216

10.4.1 Power systems 218

10.4.2 Thermally driven cooling systems 219

10.4.3 System arrangements 221

10.5 Concluding remarks 225

References 225

11 Maintenance and Long ]term Operation of Supermarkets and Minimizing Refrigerant Leakage 229David Cowan, Graeme Maidment, Brian Churchyard and John Bonner

11.1 Introduction an end user perspective 229

11.1.1 Energy consumption, refrigerant gas leakage and carbon emissions 230

11.1.2 Managing the refrigeration estate 231

11.1.3 Reliability 231

11.1.4 Equipment sourcing 232

11.2 Refrigeration management at ASDA UK 232

11.3 Why is refrigerant leakage important? 232

11.4 Refrigerants, leakage rates and trends in the retail sector 234

11.5 Where and why refrigerant leakage occurs 238

11.5.1 Previous studies 239

11.5.2 Where do systems leak? Analysis of service records 240

11.6 Legislative and other approaches to reducing refrigerant emissions 244

11.6.1 USA 244

11.6.2 Japan 245

11.6.3 Asia Pacific 245

11.6.4 Europe 245

11.6.5 Additional measures aimed at reducing refrigerant leakage 247

11.7 Training and certification of refrigeration personnel 249

11.8 Refrigerant containment in supermarkets 250

11.8.1 Design 251

11.8.2 Installation 251

11.8.3 Commissioning 251

11.8.4 Operation 251

11.8.5 Service and maintenance 252

11.8.6 Record ]keeping 252

11.8.7 Best practice guidance 252

11.9 Operation and maintenance of refrigeration systems at ASDA UK 256

11.9.1 Maintenance philosophy 256

11.9.2 General and preventative maintenance procedures 257

11.9.3 Leak testing 258

11.9.4 Records and record ]keeping 258

11.9.5 Using records and targets to drive improvements 259

11.9.6 Performance monitoring and KPIs 259

References 261

12 Whole Supermarket System Modelling 263Jaime Arias

12.1 Modelling a whole supermarket 264

12.2 Modelling subsystems in supermarkets 266

12.2.1 Building model 266

12.2.2 Outdoor climate 267

12.2.3 HVAC model 267

12.2.4 Refrigeration system model 268

12.2.5 Display cabinets 271

12.2.6 Cold storage rooms 273

12.2.7 Defrost 273

12.3 Available models 273

12.3.1 EnergyPlus 274

12.3.2 CyberMart 275

12.3.3 RETScreen 276

12.3.4 SuperSIM 277

12.4 Capabilities of the models 278

12.5 Future developments 289

References 290

13 Lifecycle Analysis, Carbon Footprint, Sustainability 291Richard Watkins

13.1 Introduction to lifecycle analysis 291

13.2 LCA concepts 292

13.3 The single LCA index 293

13.4 LCA limitations 293

13.5 Example: Compare the lifecycle impact of three different refrigerated cabinets 294

13.5.1 Goal and scope 295

13.5.2 Functional unit 295

13.5.3 Inventory analysis 297

13.5.4 Lifecycle scenario assumptions 298

13.5.5 Impact assessment of the three cabinets 299

13.6 Designing for low lifecycle impact 301

13.6.1 Material choice to reduce environmental impact 301

13.6.2 Design to reduce environmental impact 302

13.7 Carbon footprint 305

13.7.1 Assessing carbon footprint 306

13.7.2 Supermarket contribution to carbon footprint 308

13.8 Total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) 308

13.9 Future developments 310

References 311

14 Designing a Zero Carbon Supermarket 313Svein H. Ruud and Ulla Lindberg

14.1 Introduction 313

14.2 System boundaries 314

14.3 Building needs 315

14.4 Refrigerated appliances 316

14.5 Lighting and other appliances 317

14.6 Building technical systems 318

14.7 Building energy management systems 322

14.8 Building envelope 322

14.9 Energy supply 323

14.10 Energy export or storage 325

14.11 Design for operation and maintenance 326

14.12 Design for low lifecycle cost 327

14.13 Design for the people 327

14.14 An example of a zero carbon supermarket 328

References 328

Glossary 329

Index 337

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Judith A. Evans
Alan M. Foster
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