Essentials of Botanical Extraction: Principles and Applications provides a unique, single source of valuable information on the various botanical extraction methods available, from conventional to the use of green and modern extraction technologies including ultrasounds, microwaves, pressurized liquids, and supercritical fluids. Most extracts obtained from botanicals are often poorly characterized with unidentified active or inactive constituents. A wise selection of an extraction strategy is vital to drug discovery from medicinal plants as extraction forms the basic first step in medicinal plant research. This book also explores the mathematical hypotheses and innovations in botanical extractions and analyzes different post extraction operations so that dependency on serendipity is reduced and the same be converted into programmed drug discovery.
- Reviews the history and current state of natural product drug discovery and development, highlighting successes and current issues
- Explains the application of chemometric tools in extraction process design and method development
- Introduces process intensification as applied to the processing of medicinal plant extracts for rapid and cost-effective extraction
1. Introduction 2. History and Background on the Use of Natural Products Obtained From Plants as Therapeutic Agents 2.1. A General Overview 2.2. Drug Usage During Prehistoric Period 2.3. Developments and Drug Usage During Ancient Times/Pre-Hellenic Civilizations 2.4. Drug Discovery and Development During the Middle Ages 2.5. Developments and Drug Usage During Last Phases of Middle Ages 3. Botanicals as a Screening Source of New Drugs: Past Success Stories and Present Day Concerns 3.1. Historic Role of Botanicals 3.2. Botanicals as Sources of New Leads Over the Past Three Decades 4. What All Should Know About Plant Drugs 4.1. Role of Plants in Drug Development 4.2. Factors Thought to be the Reason for Declining Interest in Botanicals 4.3. Approaches and Strategies to Improve the Status of Drug Discovery from Botanicals 4.4. Approaches to Medicinal Plant Selection Prior to Extraction 4.5. An Overview on Pre-Extraction Techniques 5. Extraction of Botanicals 5.1. Understanding the Link Between Botanical Extraction and their Standardization 5.2. General Extraction Approaches and Theories 5.3. Factors Affecting Extraction of Botanicals 6. Classification Of Extraction Methods 6.1. Classification of Various Non-Conventional Extraction Techniques 6.2. Removal of Unwanted and Interfering Components After Extraction 7. Innovative Extraction Process Design and Optimization 7.1. Terminologies We Need to Know 7.2. Issues Related to Design of Experiments 7.3. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) as a Tool for Optimization in Microwave Assisted Extraction (MAE) 7.4. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) as a Tool for Optimization in Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) 7.5. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) as a Tool for Optimization in Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE) 8. Identification Strategies Of Phytocompounds 8.1. Identification Strategy for Volatile Compounds 8.2. Identification Strategy for Non-Volatile Compounds 8.3. Identification of Known Compounds Using Reference Standards 8.4. Identification of Known Compounds Without Reference Standards 8.5. Identification of Compounds with Unknown Structure 8.6. Stages in Structure Elucidation 9. Qualitative Phytochemical Screening 9.1. Alkaloids 9.2. Glycosides 9.3. Terpenoids 9.4. Steroids 9.5. Flavonoids 9.6. Coumarin Drugs 9.7. Essential Oil 9.8. Carbohydrate 9.9. Tannins and Phenolic Compounds 9.10. Proteins and Amino Acids 9.11. Spray Reagents 10. Profiling Crude Extracts for Rapid Identification of Bioactive Compounds 10.1. Techniques Routinely Employed in Dereplication Study 10.2. Stages Where Dereplication is Applied During Drug Discovery from Botanicals 10.3. Construction and Characterization of Crude Extract Libraries
Dr. Subhash C. Mandal, a Professor at the Division of Pharmacognosy, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India, is one of the world's leading Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy researchers with research emphasis on Indian traditional medicine and botanical extraction. Professor Mandal is the recipient of many prestigious awards including Endeavour Research Award, Government of Australia; Distinguished Education & Research Award, AAiPS, USA; Talented Scientist Award, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka; SAARC Fellowship Award, University Grants Commission (UGC), Bangladesh; Fast Track Young Scientist Award, DST and UGC Research Award, India. Professor Mandal has supervised more than 30 doctoral and 20 M. Pharm scholars and has more than 260 research publications, several patents, and books to his credit. Professor Mandal has delivered more than 50 research presentations around the globe, has chaired many international conferences, and successfully completed more than 10 government-funded research projects. Professor Mandal is the reviewer and board member of several high-impact journals and is a recognized host scientist for many international research programs with developing countries sponsored by the Indian government.
Dr. Vivekananda Mandal, an Assistant Professor at Guru Ghasidas Central University, Bilaspur, India, is one of the young researchers in Pharmacognosy with research emphasis on botanical extraction and Phyto-analysis. Dr. Mandal is a gold medalist from one of the premier institutes of India, IIT (BHU). Dr. Mandal is also the recipient of the International Fellowship from Wakasa wan Energy Research Center, Government of Japan, for an advanced research program on innovations of atomic force technology for cancer drug discovery at National University of Fukui, Japan. Dr. Mandal has several high-impact research publications, book chapters, and patents to his credit apart from government-funded research projects. Dr. Mandal is also involved in technology transfer process with industries.
Das, Anup Kumar
Dr. Anup Kumar Das was a Senior Research Fellow for his doctoral program under the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) project at Jadavpur University (Department of Pharmaceutical Technology). Dr. Das is currently working as a Research Scientist in Mumbai, India. Dr. Das is a gold medalist in his B.Pharm (North Bengal University), and was also nominated by the University Grants Commission (UGC) for the prestigious Commonwealth Split Site Doctoral Scholarship-2014 tenable in the UK. Dr. Das has high-impact research publications and a patent to his credit.