Optimization of Power System Operation. 2nd Edition. IEEE Press Series on Power Engineering

  • ID: 3060262
  • Book
  • 664 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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This book applies the latest applications of new technologies to power system operation and analysis, including new and important areas that are not covered in the previous edition.

Optimization of Power System Operation covers both traditional and modern technologies, including power flow analysis, steady–state security region analysis, security constrained economic dispatch, multi–area system economic dispatch, unit commitment, optimal power flow, smart grid operation, optimal load shed, optimal reconfiguration of distribution network, power system uncertainty analysis, power system sensitivity analysis, analytic hierarchical process, neural network, fuzzy theory, genetic algorithm, evolutionary programming, and particle swarm optimization, among others.  New topics such as the wheeling model, multi–area wheeling, the total transfer capability computation in multiple areas, are also addressed. 

The new edition of this book continues to provide engineers and academics with a complete picture of the optimization of techniques used in power system operation, several important additions have been made.

  • Addresses advanced methods and optimization technologies and their applications in power systems
  • New chapters include: Steady State Security Regions, Optimal Load Shedding, Optimal Reconfiguration of Electric Distribution Network, and Uncertainty Analysis in Power Systems
  • New hot topics covered in detail include: Application of Renewable Energy and Operation of Smart Grid
  • End–of–chapter exercises added
Some contents are analyzed and discussed for the first time in detail in this book. Power engineers, operators, and planners will be able to benefit from this insightful source, as well as advanced undergraduate and graduate students.
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PREFACE xvii

PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION xix

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xxi

AUTHOR BIOGRAPHY xxiii

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1

1.1 Power System Basics 2

1.2 Conventional Methods 7

1.3 Intelligent Search Methods 9

1.4 Application of The Fuzzy Set Theory 10

References 10

CHAPTER 2 POWER FLOW ANALYSIS 13

2.1 Mathematical Model of Power Flow 13

2.2 Newton–Raphson Method 15

2.3 Gauss–Seidel Method 31

2.4 P–Q Decoupling Method 33

2.5 DC Power Flow 43

2.6 State Estimation 44

Problems and Exercises 48

References 49

CHAPTER 3 SENSITIVITY CALCULATION 51

3.1 Introduction 51

3.2 Loss Sensitivity Calculation 52

3.3 Calculation of Constrained Shift Sensitivity Factors 56

3.4 Perturbation Method for Sensitivity Analysis 68

3.5 Voltage Sensitivity Analysis 71

3.6 Real–Time Application of the Sensitivity Factors 73

3.7 Simulation Results 74

3.8 Conclusion 86

Problems and Exercises 88

References 88

CHAPTER 4 CLASSIC ECONOMIC DISPATCH 91

4.1 Introduction 91

4.2 Input Output Characteristics of Generator Units 91

4.3 Thermal System Economic Dispatch Neglecting Network Losses 97

4.4 Calculation of Incremental Power Losses 105

4.5 Thermal System Economic Dispatch with Network Losses 107

4.6 Hydrothermal System Economic Dispatch 109

4.7 Economic Dispatch by Gradient Method 116

4.8 Classic Economic Dispatch by Genetic Algorithm 123

4.9 Classic Economic Dispatch by Hopfield Neural Network 128

Appendix A: Optimization Methods Used in Economic Operation 132

A.1 Gradient Method 132

A.2 Line Search 135

A.3 Newton–Raphson Optimization 135

A.4 Trust–Region Optimization 136

A.5 Newton Raphson Optimization with Line Search 137

A.6 Quasi–Newton Optimization 137

A.7 Double Dogleg Optimization 139

A.8 Conjugate Gradient Optimization 139

A.9 Lagrange Multipliers Method 140

A.10 Kuhn Tucker Conditions 141

Problems and Exercises 142

References 143

CHAPTER 5 SECURITY–CONSTRAINED ECONOMIC DISPATCH 145

5.1 Introduction 145

5.2 Linear Programming Method 145

5.3 Quadratic Programming Method 157

5.4 Network Flow Programming Method 162

5.5 Nonlinear Convex Network Flow Programming Method 183

5.6 Two–Stage Economic Dispatch Approach 197

5.7 Security Constrained Economic Dispatch by Genetic Algorithms 201

Appendix A: Network Flow Programming 202

A.1 The Transportation Problem 203

A.2 Dijkstra Label–Setting Algorithm 209

Problems and Exercises 210

References 212

CHAPTER 6 MULTIAREAS SYSTEM ECONOMIC DISPATCH 215

6.1 Introduction 215

6.2 Economy of Multiareas Interconnection 215

6.3 Wheeling 220

6.4 Multiarea Wheeling 225

6.5 Maed Solved by Nonlinear Convex Network Flow Programming 226

6.6 Nonlinear Optimization Neural Network Approach 235

6.7 Total Transfer Capability Computation in Multiareas 244

Appendix A: Comparison of Two Optimization Neural Network Models 248

A.1 For Proposed Neural Network M–9 248

A.2 For Neural Network M–10 in Reference [27] 249

Problems and Exercises 250

References 251

CHAPTER 7 UNIT COMMITMENT 253

7.1 Introduction 253

7.2 Priority Method 253

7.3 Dynamic Programming Method 256

7.4 Lagrange Relaxation Method 259

7.5 Evolutionary Programming–Based Tabu Search Method 263

7.6 Particle Swarm Optimization for Unit Commitment 269

7.7 Analytic Hierarchy Process 273

Problems and Exercises 293

References 295

CHAPTER 8 OPTIMAL POWER FLOW 297

8.1 Introduction 297

8.2 Newton Method 298

8.3 Gradient Method 307

8.4 Linear Programming OPF 312

8.5 Modified Interior Point OPF 314

8.6 OPF with Phase Shifter 328

8.7 Multiple Objectives OPF 337

8.8 Particle Swarm Optimization For OPF 346

Problems and Exercises 359

References 359

CHAPTER 9 STEADY–STATE SECURITY REGIONS 365

9.1 Introduction 365

9.2 Security Corridors 366

9.3 Traditional Expansion Method 371

9.4 Enhanced Expansion Method 374

9.5 Fuzzy Set and Linear Programming 385

Appendix A: Linear Programming 391

A.1 Standard Form of LP 391

A.2 Duality 394

A.3 The Simplex Method 397

Problems and Exercises 403

References 405

CHAPTER 10 APPLICATION OF RENEWABLE ENERGY 407

10.1 Introduction 407

10.2 Renewable Energy Resources 407

10.3 Operation of Grid–Connected PV System 409

10.4 Voltage Calculation of Distribution Network 414

10.5 Frequency Impact of PV Plant in Distribution Network 417

10.6 Operation of Wind Energy [1,10 16] 420

10.7 Voltage Analysis in Power System with Wind Energy 426

Problems and Exercises 432

References 434

CHAPTER 11 OPTIMAL LOAD SHEDDING 437

11.1 Introduction 437

11.2 Conventional Load Shedding 438

11.3 Intelligent Load Shedding 440

11.4 Formulation of Optimal Load Shedding 443

11.5 Optimal Load Shedding with Network Constraints 444

11.6 Optimal Load Shedding without Network Constraints 451

11.7 Distributed Interruptible Load Shedding (DILS) 460

11.8 Undervoltage Load Shedding 467

11.9 Congestion Management 473

Problems and Exercises 480

References 481

CHAPTER 12 OPTIMAL RECONFIGURATION OF ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION NETWORK 483

12.1 Introduction 483

12.2 Mathematical Model of DNRC 484

12.3 Heuristic Methods 486

12.4 Rule–Based Comprehensive Approach 488

12.5 Mixed–Integer Linear–Programming Approach 492

12.6 Application of GA to DNRC 504

12.7 Multiobjective Evolution Programming to DNRC 510

12.8 Genetic Algorithm Based on Matroid Theory 515

Appendix A: Evolutionary Algorithm of Multiobjective Optimization 521

Problems and Exercises 524

References 526

CHAPTER 13 UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS IN POWER SYSTEMS 529

13.1 Introduction 529

13.2 Definition of Uncertainty 530

13.3 Uncertainty Load Analysis 530

13.4 Uncertainty Power Flow Analysis 542

13.5 Economic Dispatch with Uncertainties 545

13.6 Hydrothermal System Operation with Uncertainty 555

13.7 Unit Commitment with Uncertainties 555

13.8 VAR Optimization with Uncertain Reactive Load 561

13.9 Probabilistic Optimal Power Flow 563

13.10 Comparison of Deterministic and Probabilistic Methods 574

Problems and Exercises 575

References 576

CHAPTER 14 OPERATION OF SMART GRID 579

14.1 Introduction 579

14.2 Definition of Smart Grid 580

14.3 Smart Grid Technologies 580

14.4 Smart Grid Operation 581

14.5 Two–Stage Approach for Smart Grid Dispatch 597

14.6 Operation of Virtual Power Plants 603

14.7 Smart Distribution Grid 605

14.8 Microgrid Operation 608

14.9 A New Phase Angle Measurement Algorithm 616

Problems and Exercises 623

References 626

INDEX 629

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Jizhong Zhu is a Senior Principal Power Systems Engineer as well as a Fellow with ALSTOM Grid Inc, USA. In addition to his industry experience, Dr. Zhu has worked at Howard University in Washington, D.C., the National University of Singapore, Brunel University in England, and Chongqing University in China. A Senior Member of the IEEE and an honorable advisory professor of Chongqing University, he has published six books as an author and co–author, as well as about two hundred papers in the international journals and conferences. His research interest is in the analysis, operation, planning and control of power systems as well as applications of renewable energy.
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