Chemistry and Technology of Polyols for Polyurethanes

  • ID: 307512
  • Book
  • 585 pages
  • Smithers Information Ltd
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Polyurethanes have become one of the most dynamic groups of polymers and they find use in nearly every aspect of modern life, in applications such as furniture, bedding, seating and instrument panels for cars, shoe soles, thermoinsulation, carpet backings, packaging, and as coatings.

The main raw materials used for the production of polyurethanes are polyols, isocyanates and propylene oxide. The first of these is the subject of the latest Handbook: Chemistry and Technology of Polyols for Polyurethanes.

This book considers the raw materials used to build the polyurethane polymeric architecture. It covers the chemistry and technology of oligo-polyol fabrication, the characteristics of the various oligo-polyol families and the effects of the oligo-polyol structure on the properties of the resulting polyurethane. It presents the details of oligo-polyol synthesis, and explains the chemical and physico-chemical subtleties of oligo-polyol fabrication.

This book attempts to link data and information concerning the chemistry and technology of oligo-polyols for polyurethanes, providing a comprehensive overview of:

- Basic polyurethane chemistry
- Key oligo-polyol characteristics
- Synthesis of the main oligo-polyol families, including: polyether polyols, polyester polyols, polybutadiene polyols, acrylic polyols, polysiloxane polyols, aminic polyols
- Polyols from renewable resources
- Chemical recovery of polyols
- Relationships between polyol structure and polyurethane properties

This book will be of interest to all specialists working with polyols for the manufacture of polyurethanes and to all researchers that would like to know more about polyol chemistry.

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1 Polyols
1.1 Introduction
2 Basic Chemistry of Polyurethanes
2.1 Reaction of Isocyanates with Alcohols
2.2 Reaction of Isocyanates with Water
2.3 Reaction of Isocyanates with Urethanes
2.4 Reaction of Isocyanates with Urea Groups
2.5 Reaction of Isocyanates with Carboxylic Acids
2.6 Dimerisation of Isocyanates
2.7 Trimerisation of Isocyanates
2.8 Reaction of Isocyanates with Epoxide Compounds
2.9 Reaction of Isocyanates with Cyclic Anhydrides
2.10 Prepolymer Technique
2.11 Quasiprepolymer Technique
2.12 One Shot Technique
2.13 Several Considerations on the Polyaddition Reaction

3 The General Characteristics of Oligo-Polyols
3.1 Hydroxyl Number
3.1.1 Hydroxyl Percentage
3.2 Functionality
3.3 Molecular Weight and Molecular Weight Distribution
3.4 Equivalent Weight
3.5 Water Content
3.6 Primary Hydroxyl Content
3.7 Reactivity
3.8 Specific Gravity
3.9 Viscosity
3.10 Colour
3.11 Acid Number

4 Oligo-Polyols for Elastic Polyurethanes
4.1. Polyalkylene Oxide Polyether Polyols
4.1.1 Synthesis of Polyether Triols Based on Glycerol Homopolymers of PO
4.1.2 Kinetics of PO Addition to Glycerol
4.1.3 Random Copolyethers PO-EO (Heteropolyether Polyols)
4.1.4 Polyether Polyols Block Copolymers PO-EO
4.1.5 Technology for Polyether Polyol Fabrication
4.2 Anionic Polymerisation of Alkylene Oxides Catalysed by Phosphazenium Compounds
4.3 High Molecular Weight Polyether Polyols Based on Polyamine Starters. Autocatalytic Polyether Polyols

5 Synthesis of High Molecular Weight Polyether Polyols with Double Metal Cyanide Catalysts (DMC Catalysts)

6 Polymer Polyols (Filled Polyols)
6.1 Graft Polyether Polyols
6.2 The Chemistry of the Graft Polyether Polyols Synthesis
6.2.1 Generation in situ of NAD by Grafting Reactions
6.2.2 Stabilisation of Polymer Dispersions in Polymer Polyols with Macromers (Reactive NAD)
6.2.3 Nonreactive Nonaqueous Dispersants
6.2.4 The Mechanism of Polymer Particle Formation in Polymer Polyols Synthesis by Radical Polymerisation
6.3 The Technology of Polymer Polyols Manufacture by Radical Processes
6.3.1 Synthesis of Polymer Polyols by Using Preformed Aqueous Polymeric Lattices
6.4 PHD Polymer Polyols (Polyurea Dispersions)
6.5 Polyisocyanate Polyaddition (PIPA) Polymer Polyols
6.6 Other Polymer Polyols
6.6.1 Epoxy Dispersions
6.6.2 Polyamide Dispersions
6.6.3 Aminoplast Dispersions

7 Polyether Polyols by Cationic Polymerisation Processes
7.1 Polytetrahydrofuran (Polytetramethylene Glycols)
7.2 High Molecular Weight Polyalkylene Oxide Polyols by Cationic Polymerisation
7.3 Polyether Diols and Triols, Copolymers THF-alkylene Oxides

8 Polyester Polyols for Elastic Polyurethanes
8.1 Chemistry of Polyester Polyol Synthesis
8.2 Consideration of the Kinetics of Polyesterification Reactions
8.2.1 Self Catalysed Polyesterification Reactions (Without Catalyst)
8.2.2 Side Reactions in Polyesterification
8.2.3 Hydrolysis Resistant Polyester Polyols
8.3 Technology for Polyester Polyols Fabrication
8.4 Poly (e-caprolactone) Polyols
8.5 Polycarbonate Polyols

9 Polybutadiene Polyols
9.1 Polybutadiene Polyols by Radical Polymerisation of Butadiene
9.2 Synthesis of Polybutadiene Polyols by Radical Polymerisation of Butadiene
9.3 Synthesis of Polybutadiene Polyols by Anionic Polymerisation of Butadiene

10 Acrylic Polyols

11 Polysiloxane Polyols

12 Polyols for Rigid Polyurethanes - General Considerations

13 Polyether Polyols for Rigid Polyurethane Foams
13.1 The Polyaddition of Alkylene Oxides to Hydroxyl Groups
13.1.1 The Mechanism of Alkylene Oxide Polyaddition to Hydroxyl Groups Catalysed by the Tertiary Amines
13.2 Polyether Polyols Technologies for Rigid Foam Fabrication
13.2.1 Anionic Polymerisation of PO (or/and EO) Initiated by Polyols which are Liquid at the Reaction Temperature
13.3 Kinetic Considerations Concerning the Alkoxylation of Polyols to Rigid Polyether Polyols
13.3.1 Anionic Polymerisation of PO (or/and EO) Initiated by High Melting Point Polyols which are Solid at the Reaction Temperature

14 Aminic Polyols

15 Rigid Polyols Based on the Alkoxylation of Aromatic Compounds Condensates with Aldehydes
15.1 Mannich Polyols
15.2 Novolak-Based Polyether Polyols
15.3 Bisphenol A Based Polyols
15.4 Resorcinol Based Diols
15.4 Melamine-Based Polyols for Rigid Polyurethanes

16 Polyester Polyols for Rigid Polyurethane Foams
16.1 Aromatic Polyester Polyols from Bottom Residues Resulting in DMT Fabrication
16.2 Aromatic Polyester Polyols from Polyethylene Terephthalate Wastes (Bottles, Films, Fibres)
16.3 Aromatic Polyester Polyols Based on Phthalic Anhydride (PA)
16.4 Other Methods for the Synthesis of Polyester Polyols for Rigid Foams

17 Polyols from Renewable Resources - Oleochemical Polyols
17.1 Vegetable Oil Polyols (Oleochemical Polyols)
17.1.1 Synthesis of Vegetable Oil Polyols by using Reactions Involving Ester Groups
17.1.2 Synthesis of Vegetable Oil Polyols by using Reactions Involving the Double Bonds
17.1.3 Other Reactions Involving Reactions of Double Bonds of Vegetable Oils
17.1.4 Other Renewable Materials

18 Flame Retardant Polyols
18.1 Chlorine and Bromine Containing Polyols
18.2 Phosphorus Polyols
18.2.1 Esters of Ortho-Phosphoric Acid
18.2.2 Esters of Phosphorus Acid
18.2.3 Phosphonate Polyols
18.2.4 Phosphine Oxide Polyols
18.2.5 Phosphoramidic Polyols

19 New Polyol Structures for Rigid Polyurethane Foams
19.1 Amidic Polyols
19.2 Hyperbranched Polyols and Dendritic Polyols

20 Oligo-Polyols by Chemical Recovery of PU Wastes
20.1 Hydrolysis of PU Polymers
20.2 Glycolysis of PU Polymers
20.3 Aminolysis of PU Polymer
20.4 Alkoxylation of PU Polymer
20.5 Chemical Recovery of Flexible PU Foam Wastes by Hydrolysis
20.6 Rigid Polyols by Glycolysis of Rigid PU Foam Wastes
20.7 Rigid Polyols by Aminolysis of Rigid PU Foam Wastes
20.8 Technology for Chemical Recovery of Rigid PU Foams (and Isocyanuric Foams) by the Glycolysis Processes

21 Relationships Between the Oligo-Polyol Structure and Polyurethane Properties
21.1 Molecular Weight
21.1.1 The Effect of the Molecular Weight of Oligo-Polyols
21.2 Intermolecular Forces
21.2.1 The Effect of the Chemical Nature of Oligo-Polyol Chains
21.3 Stiffness of the Chain
21.4 Crystallinity
21.5 Crosslinking
21.5.1 The Effect of Oligo-Polyol Functionality
21.5.2 The Effect of Oligo-Polyol Structure on the Polyurethane Behaviour in Contact with Organic Solvents and Water
21.6 Thermal Stability and Flame Retardancy
21.6.1 Flame Retardancy


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