Indoor Radio Planning. A Practical Guide for 2G, 3G and 4G. 3rd Edition

  • ID: 3089729
  • Book
  • 610 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Why is high performance indoor wireless service needed, and how is it best implemented? As the challenge of providing better service and higher data speeds and quality for mobile applications intensifies, ensuring adequate in–building and tunnel coverage and capacity is increasingly important. A unique, single–source reference on the theoretical and practical knowledge behind indoor and tunnel radio planning, this book provides a detailed overview of mobile networks systems, coverage and capacity solutions with 2G, 3G and 4G cellular system technologies as a backdrop.
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Foreword by Professor Simon Saunders xvii

Preface to the Third Edition xix

7 years! xix

Certified DAS Planning Training xix

More on 4G, Small Cells, Applications and RF Basics xx

Useful Tool? xx

Thanks! xx

Preface to the Second Edition xxi

This is Still Not a Book for Scientists! xxi

The Practical Approach xxii

Keep the Originals! xxii

Preface to the First Edition xxiii

This is Not a Book for Scientists xxiii

The Practical Approach xxiii

Acknowledgments xxv

Second Edition xxv

First Edition xxvi

1 Introduction 1

2 Overview of Cellular Systems 5

2.1 Mobile Telephony 5

2.1.1 Cellular Systems 5

2.1.2 Radio Transmission in General 8

2.1.3 The Cellular Concept 8

2.1.4 Digital Cellular Systems 9

2.2 Introduction to GSM (2G) 10

2.2.1 GSM (2G) 10

2.2.2 2G/GSM Radio Features 11

2.2.3 Mobility Management in GSM 16

2.2.4 GSM Signaling 22

2.2.5 GSM Network Architecture 25

2.3 Universal Mobile Telecommunication System/3G 27

2.3.1 The Most Important 3G/UMTS Radio Design Parameters 28

2.3.2 The 3G/UMTS Radio Features 28

2.3.3 3G/UMTS Noise Control 38

2.3.4 3G/UMTS Handovers 42

2.3.5 UMTS/3G Power Control 46

2.3.6 UMTS and Multipath Propagation 49

2.3.7 UMTS Signaling 52

2.3.8 The UMTS Network Elements 55

2.4 Introduction to HSPA 57

2.4.1 Introduction 57

2.4.2 WiFi 58

2.4.3 Introduction to HSDPA 60

2.4.4 Indoor HSPA Coverage 61

2.4.5 Indoor HSPA Planning for Maximum Performance 63

2.4.6 HSDPA Coverage from the Macro Network 64

2.4.7 Passive DAS and HSPA 66

2.4.8 Short Introduction to HSPA+ 68

2.4.9 Conclusion 68

2.5 Modulation 69

2.5.1 Shannon s Formula 69

2.5.2 BPSK 70

2.5.3 QPSK Quadrature Phase Shift Keying 70

2.5.4 Higher Order Modulation 1664QAM 70

2.5.5 EVM Error Vector Magnitude 72

2.5.6 Adaptive Modulation, Planning for Highest Data Speed 72

2.6 Advanced Antenna Systems for 3G/4G 74

2.6.1 SISO/MIMO Systems 75

2.6.2 SISO, Single Input Single Output 75

2.6.3 SIMO, Single Input Multiple Output 76

2.6.4 MISO, Multiple Inputs Single Output 76

2.6.5 MIMO, Multiple Inputs Multiple Outputs 77

2.6.6 Planning for Optimum Data Speeds Using MIMO 79

2.7 Short Introduction to 4G/LTE 80

2.7.1 Motivation behind LTE and EUTRAN 80

2.7.2 Key Features of LTE EUTRAN 82

2.7.3 System Architecture Evolution SAE 84

2.7.4 EPS Evolved Packet System 84

2.7.5 Evolved Packet Core Network EPC 85

2.7.6 LTE Reference Points/Interfaces 87

2.7.7 The LTE RF Channel Bandwidth 87

2.7.8 OFDM Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing 88

2.7.9 OFDMA Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access 89

2.7.10 SCFDMA Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access 90

2.7.11 LTE Slot Structure 91

2.7.12 User Scheduling 92

2.7.13 Downlink Reference Signals 92

2.7.14 The 4G/LTE Channel 92

2.7.15 LTE Communication and Control Channels 93

2.7.16 Radio Resource Management in LTE 96

3 Indoor Radio Planning 111

3.1 Why is Inbuilding Coverage Important? 111

3.1.1 Commercial and Technical Evaluation 112

3.1.2 The Main Part of the Mobile Traffic is Indoors 112

3.1.3 Some 70 80% of Mobile Traffic is Inside Buildings 112

3.1.4 Indoor Solutions Can Make a Great Business Case 112

3.1.5 Business Evaluation 113

3.1.6 Coverage Levels/Cost Level 113

3.1.7 Evaluate the Value of the Proposed Solution 113

3.2 Indoor Coverage from the Macro Layer 114

3.2.1 More Revenue with Indoor Solutions 114

3.2.2 The Problem Reaching Indoor Mobile Users 115

3.3 The Indoor 3G/HSPA Challenge 117

3.3.1 3G Orthogonality Degradation 117

3.3.2 Power Load per User 120

3.3.3 Interference Control in the Building 120

3.3.4 The Soft Handover Load 120

3.3.5 3G/HSPA Indoor Coverage Conclusion 121

3.4 Common 3G/4G Rollout Mistakes 122

3.4.1 The Macro Mistake 122

3.4.2 Do Not Apply 2G Strategies 123

3.4.3 The Correct Way to Plan 3G/4G Indoor Coverage 123

3.5 The Basics of Indoor RF Planning 124

3.5.1 Isolation is the Key 124

3.5.2 Tinted Windows Will Help Isolation 124

3.5.3 The Highrise Problem 125

3.5.4 Radio Service Quality 128

3.5.5 Indoor RF Design Levels 129

3.5.6 The Zone Planning Concept 129

3.6 RF Metrics Basics 131

3.6.1 Gain 132

3.6.2 Gain Factor 132

3.6.3 Decibel (dB) 133

3.6.4 dBm 135

3.6.5 Equivalent Isotropic Radiated Power (EiRP) 136

3.6.6 Delays in the DAS 136

3.6.7 Offset of the Cell Size 139

4 Distributed Antenna Systems 141

4.1 What Type of Distributed Antenna System is Best? 141

4.1.1 Passive or Active DAS 142

4.1.2 Learn to Use all the Indoor Tools 142

4.1.3 Combine the Tools 143

4.2 Passive Components 143

4.2.1 General 143

4.2.2 Coax Cable 143

4.2.3 Splitters 144

4.2.4 Taps/Uneven Splitters 145

4.2.5 Attenuators 146

4.2.6 Dummy Loads or Terminators 147

4.2.7 Circulators 147

4.2.8 A 3 dB Coupler (90° Hybrid) 148

4.2.9 Power Load on Passive Components 150

4.2.10 Filters 151

4.3 The Passive DAS 151

4.3.1 Planning the Passive DAS 151

4.3.2 Main Points About Passive DAS 153

4.3.3 Applications for Passive DAS 154

4.4 Active DAS 154

4.4.1 Easy to Plan 155

4.4.2 Pure Active DAS for Large Buildings 155

4.4.3 Pure Active DAS for Small to Mediumsize Buildings 159

4.4.4 Active Fiber DAS 160

4.5 Hybrid Active DAS Solutions 163

4.5.1 Data Performance on the Uplink 163

4.5.2 DL Antenna Power 163

4.5.3 Antenna Supervision 164

4.5.4 Installation Challenges 164

4.5.5 The Elements of the Hybrid Active DAS 164

4.6 Other Hybrid DAS Solutions 166

4.6.1 Inline BDA Solution 166

4.6.2 Combining Passive and Active Indoor DAS 167

4.6.3 Combining Indoor and Outdoor Coverage 168

4.7 Indoor DAS for MIMO Applications 171

4.7.1 Calculating the Ideal MIMO Antenna Distance Separation for Indoor DAS 171

4.7.2 Make Both MIMO Antennas Visible for the Users 173

4.7.3 Passive DAS and MIMO 178

4.7.4 Pure Active DAS for MIMO 179

4.7.5 Hybrid DAS and MIMO 181

4.7.6 Upgrading Existing DAS to MIMO 181

4.8 Using Repeaters for Indoor DAS Coverage 182

4.8.1 Basic Repeater Terms 184

4.8.2 Repeater Types 189

4.8.3 Repeater Considerations in General 192

4.9 Repeaters for Rail Solutions 195

4.9.1 Repeater Principle on a Train 195

4.9.2 Onboard DAS Solutions 197

4.9.3 Repeater Features for Mobile Rail Deployment 197

4.9.4 Practical Concerns with Repeaters on Rail 199

4.10 Active DAS Data 200

4.10.1 Gain and Delay 201

4.10.2 Power Per Carrier 202

4.10.3 Bandwidth, Ripple 202

4.10.4 The 1 dB Compression Point 203

4.10.5 IP3 Thirdorder Intercept Point 204

4.10.6 Harmonic Distortion, Intermodulation 205

4.10.7 Spurious Emissions 205

4.10.8 Noise Figure 205

4.10.9 MTBF 206

4.10.10 Dynamic Range and Nearfar Effect 207

4.11 Electromagnetic Radiation, EMR 211

4.11.1 ICNIRP EMR Guidelines 211

4.11.2 Mobiles are the Strongest Source of EMR 212

4.11.3 Indoor DAS will Provide Lower EMR Levels 213

4.12 Conclusion 214

5 Designing Indoor DAS Solutions 215

5.1 The Indoor Planning Procedure 215

5.1.1 Indoor Planning Process Flow 215

5.1.2 The RF Planning Part of the Process 217

5.1.3 The Site Survey 218

5.1.4 Time Frame for Implementing Indoor DAS 219

5.1.5 Post Implementation 219

5.2 The RF Design Process 220

5.2.1 The Role of the RF Planner 220

5.2.2 RF Measurements 220

5.2.3 The Initial RF Measurements 221

5.2.4 Measurements of Existing Coverage Level 222

5.2.5 RF Survey Measurement 223

5.2.6 Planning the Measurements 224

5.2.7 Post Implementation Measurements 226

5.2.8 Free Space Loss 227

5.2.9 The One Meter Test 227

5.3 Designing the Optimum Indoor Solution 229

5.3.1 Adapt the Design to Reality 229

5.3.2 Learn from the Mistakes of Others 229

5.3.3 Common Mistakes When Designing Indoor Solutions 232

5.3.4 Planning the Antenna Locations 233

5.3.5 The Corridor Effect 235

5.3.6 Fire Cells Inside the Building 236

5.3.7 Indoor Antenna Performance 236

5.3.8 The Corner Office Problem 243

5.3.9 Interleaving Antennas Inbetween Floors 244

5.3.10 Planning for Full Indoor Coverage 247

5.3.11 The Cost of Indoor Design Levels 249

5.4 Indoor Design Strategy 250

5.4.1 Hotspot Planning Inside Buildings 250

5.4.2 Special Design Considerations 255

5.4.3 The Design Flow 256

5.4.4 Placing the Indoor Antennas 256

5.5 Handover Considerations Inside Buildings 257

5.5.1 Indoor 2G Handover Planning 258

5.5.2 Indoor 3G Handover Planning 259

5.5.3 Handover Zone Size 261

5.6 Elevator Coverage 262

5.6.1 Elevator Installation Challenges 262

5.6.2 The Most Common Coverage Elevator Solution 262

5.6.3 Antenna Inside the Shaft 262

5.6.4 Repeater in the Liftcar 264

5.6.5 DAS Antenna in the Liftcar 264

5.6.6 Passive Repeaters in Elevators 265

5.6.7 Reallife Example of a Passive Repeater in an Elevator 266

5.6.8 Control the Elevator HO Zone 267

5.6.9 Elevator HO Zone Size 267

5.6.10 Challenges with Elevator Repeaters for Large Shafts 268

5.7 Multioperator Systems 276

5.7.1 Multioperator DAS Solutions Compatibility 276

5.7.2 The Combiner System 283

5.7.3 Intermodulation Distortion 284

5.7.4 How to Minimize PIM 285

5.7.5 IMD Products 286

5.8 Coexistence Issues for 2G/3G 287

5.8.1 Spurious Emissions 287

5.8.2 Combined DAS for 2G–900 and 3G 288

5.8.3 Combined DAS for 2G–1800 and 3G 288

5.9 Coexistence Issues for 3G/3G 289

5.9.1 Adjacent Channel Interference Power Ratio 290

5.9.2 The ACIR Problem with Indoor DAS 291

5.9.3 Solving the ACIR Problem Inside Buildings 292

5.10 Multioperator Requirements 293

5.10.1 Multioperator Agreement 294

5.10.2 Parties Involved in the Indoor Project 294

5.10.3 The Most Important Aspects to Cover in the MOA 294

6 Traffic Dimensioning 297

6.1 Erlang, the Traffic Measurement 297

6.1.1 What is One Erlang? 298

6.1.2 Call Blocking, Grade of Service 299

6.1.3 The Erlang B Table 299

6.1.4 User Types, User Traffic Profile 301

6.1.5 Save on Cost, Use the Erlang Table 302

6.1.6 When Not to Use Erlang 302

6.1.7 2G Radio Channels and Erlang 303

6.1.8 3G Channels and Erlang 303

6.1.9 Trunking Gain, Resource Sharing 304

6.1.10 Cell Configuration in Indoor Projects 305

6.1.11 Busy Hour and Return on Investment Calculations 307

6.1.12 Base Station Hotels 313

6.2 Data Capacity 315

6.2.1 Applicationdriven Data Load 316

6.2.2 Data offload to WiFi and Small Cells 319

6.2.3 Futureproof Your DAS to Handle More Data Load 319

6.2.4 Eventdriven Data Load 323

6.2.5 Calculating the Data Load 323

7 Noise 327

7.1 Noise Fundamentals 327

7.1.1 Thermal Noise 328

7.1.2 Noise Factor 329

7.1.3 Noise Figure 329

7.1.4 Noise Floor 329

7.1.5 The Receiver Sensitivity 330

7.1.6 Noise Figure of Amplifiers 331

7.1.7 Noise Factor of Coax Cables 332

7.2 Cascaded Noise 334

7.2.1 The Friis Formula 334

7.2.2 Amplifier After the Cable Loss 335

7.2.3 Amplifier Prior to the Cable Loss 337

7.2.4 Problems with Passive Cables and Passive DAS 339

7.3 Noise Power 341

7.3.1 Calculating the Noise Power of a System 342

7.4 Noise Power from Parallel Systems 346

7.4.1 Calculating Noise Power from Parallel Sources 346

7.5 Noise Control 347

7.5.1 Noise Load on Base Stations 347

7.5.2 Noise and 2G Base Stations 348

7.5.3 Noise and 3G Base Stations 348

7.6 Updating a Passive DAS from 2G to 3G/4G 349

7.6.1 The 3G/4G Challenge 349

7.6.2 The 3G Problem 350

7.6.3 Solution 1, Inline BDA 351

7.6.4 Solution 2: Active DAS Overlay 355

7.6.5 Conclusions on Noise and Noise Control 359

8 The Link Budget 361

8.1 The Components and Calculations of the RF Link 362

8.1.1 The Maximum Allowable Path Loss 362

8.1.2 The Components in the Link Budget 362

8.1.3 Link Budgets for Indoor Systems 374

8.1.4 Passive DAS Link Budget 376

8.1.5 Active DAS Link Budget 376

8.1.6 The Free Space Loss 377

8.1.7 The Modified Indoor Model 377

8.1.8 The PLS Model 379

8.1.9 Calculating the Antenna Service Radius 380

8.2 4G Link Budget 382

8.2.1 4G Design Levels 383

8.2.2 RSRP, Reference Symbol Transmit Power 384

8.2.3 4G RSSI Signal Power 385

8.2.4 4G Coverage vs. Capacity 385

8.2.5 4G DL RS Link Budget Example 386

9 Tools for Indoor Radio Planning 389

9.1 Live and Learn 389

9.2 Diagram Tools 390

9.2.1 Simple or Advanced? 390

9.3 Radio Survey Tools 391

9.3.1 Use Only Calibrated Equipment 391

9.4 The Simple Tools and Tips 391

9.4.1 Use a Digital Camera 391

9.4.2 Use the World Wide Web 392

9.4.3 Traffic Calculations 392

9.5 Tools for Link Budget Calculations 392

9.6 Tools for Indoor Predictions 392

9.6.1 Spreadsheets Can Do Most of the Job 394

9.6.2 The More Advanced RF Prediction Models 394

9.7 The Advanced Toolkit (iBwave Unity, Design, and Mobile from iBwave.com) 395

9.7.1 Save Time, Keep Costs and Mistakes to a Minimum 396

9.7.2 Collaboration, Visibility, and Revision Controls 396

9.7.3 Multisystem or Multioperator Small Cells, DAS, and WiFi 397

9.7.4 The Site Survey Tool 397

9.7.5 The Mobile Planning Tool 397

9.7.6 Import Floor Plans 397

9.7.7 Schematic Diagram 398

9.7.8 Floor Plan Diagram 401

9.7.9 Site Documentation 401

9.7.10 Error Detection 401

9.7.11 Component Database 402

9.7.12 RF Propagation 403

9.7.13 RF Optimization 403

9.7.14 Complex Environments 404

9.7.15 Importing an RF Survey 404

9.7.16 Equipment List and Project Cost Report 405

9.7.17 RF and Installation Report 405

9.7.18 Fully Integrated 406

9.7.19 Outputs from the Tool 406

9.7.20 Team Collaboration 407

9.7.21 Make Sure to Learn the Basics 408

9.8 Tools for DAS Verification 408

9.8.1 3G Example Measurement 409

9.8.2 4G Example Measurement 412

9.8.3 Final Word on Tools 412

10 Optimizing the Radio Resource Management Parameters on Node B When Interfacing to an Active DAS, BDA, LNA or TMA 413

10.1 Introduction 413

10.1.1 3G Radio Performance is All About Noise and Power Control 413

10.1.2 3G RF Parameter Reference is Different from 2G 414

10.1.3 Adjust the Parameters 414

10.1.4 How to Adjust this in the RAN 415

10.1.5 Switch Off the LNA in Node B when Using Active DAS 415

10.2 Impact of DL Power Offset 415

10.2.1 Access Burst 415

10.2.2 Power Offset Between Node B and the Active DAS 416

10.2.3 Solution 417

10.2.4 Impact on the UL of Node B 417

10.2.5 Admission Control 417

10.3 Impact of Noise Power 417

10.3.1 The UL Noise Increase on Node B 418

10.4 Delay of the Active DAS 418

10.4.1 Solution 419

10.5 Impact of External Noise Power 419

10.5.1 To Calculate the Noise Power 419

10.5.2 To Calculate the UL Attenuator 419

10.5.3 Affect on Admission Control 421

11 Tunnel Radio Planning 423

11.1 The Typical Tunnel Solution 424

11.1.1 The Penetration Loss into the Train Coach 425

11.2 The Tunnel HO Zone 426

11.2.1 Establishing the HO Zone Size 427

11.2.2 The Link Loss and the Effect on the Handover Zone Design 428

11.2.3 The Handover Challenge Between the Tunnel and Outside Network 429

11.2.4 Possible Solutions for the Tunnel HO Problem to the Outside Network 430

11.3 Covering Tunnels with Antennas 432

11.4 Radiating Cable Solutions 434

11.4.1 The Radiating Cable 435

11.4.2 Calculating the Coverage Level 437

11.4.3 Installation Challenges Using Radiating Cable 442

11.5 Tunnel Solutions, Cascaded BDAs 444

11.5.1 Cascaded Noise Buildup 444

11.5.2 Example of a Reallife Cascaded BDA System 445

11.6 Tunnel Solutions, TSystems 446

11.6.1 Tsystems, Principle 447

11.6.2 Example of a Reallife Tsystem with BDAs 447

11.6.3 Tsystems with Antenna Distribution 449

11.7 Handover Design inside Tunnels 450

11.7.1 General Considerations 450

11.7.2 Using Antennas for the HO Zone in Tunnels 451

11.7.3 Using Parallel Radiating Cable for the HO Zone 453

11.7.4 Using a Coupler for the HO Zone 454

11.7.5 Avoid Common HO Zone Mistakes 455

11.8 Redundancy in Tunnel Coverage Solutions 455

11.8.1 Multiple Cell Redundancy in Tunnels 457

11.9 Sector Strategy for Larger Metro Tunnel Projects 458

11.9.1 Common Cell Plans for Large Metro Rail Systems 458

11.9.2 Using Distributed Base Station in a Metro Tunnel Solution 461

11.9.3 Using Optical Fibre DAS in a Metro Tunnel Solution 461

11.10 RF Test Specification of Tunnel Projects 463

11.11 Timing Issues in DAS for Tunnels 464

11.11.1 Calculating the Total Delay of a Tunnel Solution 466

11.11.2 Solving the Delay Problem in the Tunnel DAS 468

11.11.3 High Speed Rail Tunnels 468

11.11.4 Road Tunnels 469

12 Covering Indoor Users From the Outdoor Network 471

12.1 The Challenges of Reaching Indoor Users From the Macro Network 471

12.1.1 Micro Cell (Small Cell) Deployment for IB Coverage 472

12.1.2 Antenna Locations for Micro Cells 474

12.1.3 Antenna Clearance for Micro Cells 475

12.1.4 The Canyon Effect 476

12.2 Micro Cell Capacity 476

12.3 ODAS Outdoor Distributed Antenna Systems 478

12.3.1 The Base Station Hotel and Remote Units 479

12.3.2 Simulcast and Flexible Capacity 480

12.3.3 Different Sector Plans for Different Services 481

12.4 Digital Distribution on DAS 481

12.4.1 Advantages of ODDAS 482

12.4.2 Remote Radio Heads 483

12.4.3 Integrating the ODAS with the Macro Network 484

12.5 High Speed Rail Solutions 487

12.5.1 Calculating the Required Handover Zone Size for High Speed Rail 487

12.5.2 Distributed Base Stations for High Speed Rail 488

12.5.3 Covering High Speed Rail with Outdoor Distributed Antenna Systems 490

12.5.4 Optimize the Location of the ODAS and Base Station Antennas for High Speed Rail 491

12.5.5 The Doppler Effect 492

13 Small Cells Indoors 495

13.1 Femtocells 497

13.1.1 Types of Femtocells 499

13.1.2 The Pico/Femtocell Principle 499

13.1.3 Typical Pico Cell Design 501

13.1.4 Extending Pico Cell Coverage with Active DAS 503

13.1.5 Combining Pico Cells into the Same DAS (only 2G) 505

13.1.6 Cost Savings When Combining Capacity of 2G Pico Cells 505

13.2 Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets) 507

13.3 Implementing Small Cells Indoors 507

13.3.1 Planning Considerations with Indoor Small Cells 510

13.4 Planning Examples with Femtocells 511

13.4.1 Small Office Space 512

13.4.2 Mediumsized Office Space 513

13.4.3 Large Office/Meeting Space 513

13.4.4 Final Word on Small Cells 516

14 Application Examples 517

14.1 Office Building Design 517

14.1.1 Typical Features and Checklist for Office Buildings 518

14.1.2 Small to MediumSized Office Building 518

14.1.3 Large Office Buildings 520

14.1.4 Highrises with Open Vertical Cavities 521

14.2 Malls, Warehouses, and Large Structure Design 522

14.2.1 Typical Features and Checklist for Malls, Warehouses and Large Structures 524

14.2.2 The Different Areas of Shopping Malls 524

14.3 Warehouses and Convention Centers 526

14.3.1 Typical Features and Checklist for Warehouses and Convention Center DAS Deployments 528

14.4 Campus Area Design 529

14.4.1 Typical Features and Checklist for Campus DAS Deployments 529

14.4.2 Base Station Hotels Are Ideal for Campus DAS 529

14.5 Airport Design 530

14.5.1 Typical Features and Checklist for Airports 530

14.5.2 The Different Areas in the Airport 531

14.6 Sports Arena Design 534

14.6.1 Typical Features and Checklist for Stadiums and Arenas 535

14.6.2 Arenas Require 3D Coverage and Capacity Planning 535

14.6.3 Capacity Considerations in the Arena 535

14.6.4 RF Design Considerations in the Sports Arena 540

14.6.5 Antenna Locations in the Sports Arena 542

14.6.6 Interference Across the Sports Arena 547

14.6.7 Upgrading Old 2G designs, with 3G and 4G Overlay on a Sports Arena 549

14.6.8 The HO Zone Challenge in the Arena 550

14.6.9 The Ideal DAS Design for a Stadium 553

14.7 Final Remark on Application Examples 554

15 Planning Procedure, Installation, Commissioning, and Documentation 555

15.1 The Design Phase 556

15.1.1 Design Inputs 556

15.1.2 Draft Design Process 558

15.1.3 Site Visit Survey 558

15.1.4 Update of Draft Design 560

15.2 The Implementation Phase 560

15.2.1 Installation 560

15.2.2 Postinstallation Verification 561

15.2.3 DAS Test 561

15.2.4 Commissioning 562

15.3 The Verification Phase 564

15.3.1 RF Verification 564

15.3.2 Live Traffic Test 564

15.4 Conclusion 565

References 567

Appendix 569

Reference Material 569

Index 581

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