Theory and Design for Mechanical Measurements. 6th Edition

  • ID: 3089754
  • Book
  • 624 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Figliola and Beasley s 6th edition of Theory and Design for Mechanical Measurements provides a time–tested and respected approach to the theory of engineering measurements.  An emphasis on the role of statistics and uncertainty analysis in the measuring process makes this text unique. While the measurements discipline is very broad, careful selection of topical coverage, establishes the physical principles and practical techniques for quantifying many engineering variables that have multiple engineering applications.

In the sixth edition, Theory and Design for Mechanical Measurements continues to emphasize the conceptual design framework for selecting and specifying equipment, test procedures and interpreting test results. Coverage of topics, applications and devices has been updated including information on data acquisition hardware and communication protocols, infrared imaging, and microphones. New examples that illustrate either case studies or interesting vignettes related to the application of measurements in current practice are introduced.
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1 Basic Concepts of Measurement Methods 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 General Measurement System 2

1.3 Experimental Test Plan 5

1.4 Calibration 15

1.5 Standards 23

1.6 Presenting Data 31

1.7 Summary 35

References 35

Nomenclature 36

Problems 36

2 Static and Dynamic Characteristics of Signals 43

2.1 Introduction 43

2.2 Input/output Signal Concepts 43

2.3 Signal Analysis 48

2.4 Signal Amplitude and Frequency 51

2.5 Fourier Transform and the Frequency Spectrum 65

2.6 Summary 73

References 73

Suggested Reading 74

Nomenclature 74

Problems 74

3 Measurement System Behavior 81

3.1 Introduction 81

3.2 General Model for a Measurement System 81

3.3 Special Cases of the General System Model 85

3.4 Transfer Functions 108

3.5 Phase Linearity 110

3.6 Multiple–Function Inputs 112

3.7 Coupled Systems 114

3.8 Summary 116

References 116

Nomenclature 116

Problems 117

4 Probability and Statistics 123

4.1 Introduction 123

4.2 Statistical Measurement Theory 124

4.3 Describing the Behavior of a

Population 131

4.4 Statistics of Finite–Sized Data Sets 135

4.5 Hypothesis Testing 141

4.6 Chi–squared Distribution 144

4.7 Regression Analysis 148

4.8 Data Outlier Detection 155

4.9 Number of Measurements Required 156

4.10 Monte Carlo Simulations 158

4.11 Summary 160

References 161

Nomenclature 162

Problems 162

5 Uncertainty Analysis 168

5.1 Introduction 168

5.2 Measurement Errors 169

5.3 Design–Stage Uncertainty Analysis 171

5.4 Identifying Error Sources 176

5.5 Systematic and Random Errors and Standard Uncertainties 177

5.6 Uncertainty Analysis: Multi–Variable Error Propagation 180

5.7 Advanced–Stage Uncertainty Analysis 187

5.8 Multiple–Measurement Uncertainty Analysis 193

5.9 Correction for Correlated Errors 205

5.10 Nonsymmetrical Systematic Uncertainty Interval 208

5.11 Summary 209

References 210

Nomenclature 210

Problems 211

6 Analog Electrical Devices and Measurements 219

6.1 Introduction 219

6.2 Analog Devices: Current Measurements 220

6.3 Analog Devices: Voltage Measurements 224

6.4 Analog Devices: Resistance Measurements 228

6.5 Loading Errors and Impedance Matching 235

6.6 Analog Signal Conditioning: Amplifiers 240

6.7 Analog Signal Conditioning: Special–Purpose Circuits 245

6.8 Analog Signal Conditioning: Filters 250

6.9 Grounds, Shielding, and Connecting Wires 261

6.10 Summary 264

References 264

Nomenclature 264

Problems 265

7 Sampling, Digital Devices, and Data Acquisition 271

7.1 Introduction 271

7.2 Sampling Concepts 272

7.3 Digital Devices: Bits and Words 280

7.4 Transmitting Digital Numbers: High and Low Signals 282

7.5 Voltage Measurements 284

7.6 Data Acquisition Systems 295

7.7 Data Acquisition System Components 296

7.8 Analog Input–Output Communication 301

7.9 Digital Input Output Communication 306

7.10 Digital Image Acquisition and Processing 311

7.11 Summary 316

References 316

Nomenclature 317

Problems 317

8 Temperature Measurements 322

8.1 Introduction 322

8.2 Temperature Standards and Definition 323

8.3 Thermometry Based on Thermal Expansion 326

8.4 Electrical Resistance Thermometry 328

8.5 Thermoelectric Temperature Measurement 342

8.6 Radiative Temperature Measurements 365

8.7 Physical Errors in Temperature Measurement 373

8.8 Summary 382

References 383

Suggested Reading 384

Nomenclature 384

Problems 385

9 Pressure and Velocity Measurements 392

9.1 Introduction 392

9.2 Pressure Concepts 392

9.3 Pressure Reference Instruments 395

9.4 Pressure Transducers 403

9.5 Pressure Transducer Calibration 410

9.6 Pressure Measurements in Moving Fluids 412

9.7 Modeling Pressure – Fluid Systems 416

9.8 Design and Installation: Transmission Effects 416

9.9 Acoustical Measurements 421

9.10 Fluid Velocity Measuring Systems 425

9.11 Summary 435

References 436

Nomenclature 437

Problems 438

10 Flow Measurements 442

10.1 Introduction 442

10.2 Historical Background 442

10.3 Flow Rate Concepts 443

10.4 Volume Flow Rate Through Velocity Determination 444

10.5 Pressure Differential Meters 446

10.6 Insertion Volume Flow Meters 464

10.7 Mass Flow Meters 474

10.8 Flow Meter Calibration and Standards 480

10.9 Estimating Standard Flow Rate 481

10.10 Summary 481

References 481

Nomenclature 482

Problems 483

11 Strain Measurement 487

11.1 Introduction 487

11.2 Stress and Strain 487

11.3 Resistance Strain Gauges 490

11.4 Strain Gauge Electrical Circuits 497

11.5 Practical Considerations for Strain Measurement 500

11.6 Apparent Strain and Temperature Compensation 504

11.7 Optical Strain Measuring Techniques 514

11.8 Summary 521

References 521

Nomenclature 522

Problems 523

12 Mechatronics: Sensors, Actuators, and Controls 527

12.1 Introduction 527

12.2 Sensors 527

12.3 Actuators 555

12.4 Controls 561

12.5 Summary 580

References 580

Nomenclature 580

Problems 581

Appendix A Property Data and Conversion Factors 585

Appendix B Laplace Transform Basics 592

B.1 Final Value Theorem 593

B.2 Laplace Transform Pairs 593

Reference 593

Appendix (Online Only) A Guide For Technical Writing

A Guide for Technical Writing References

Glossary 594

Index 603

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Richard S. Figliola
Donald E. Beasley
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