This unique Handbook provides an overview of the globalization of science, technology, and innovation, including global trends in the way knowledge is produced and distributed, the development of institutions, and global policy. It shows how technological change and innovation are shaped by the role of emerging countries in the generation of science and technological knowledge, and transnational corporations, and how reforms in intellectual property rights and world trade have been affected by the increasingly international flows of knowledge, technology, and innovation.
The book addresses these trends and provides an in–depth assessment of the themes and direction of science, technology, innovation, and public policy in an increasingly globalized world. Including contributions from an international team of leading scholars, this cutting–edge reference work introduces readers to current debates about the role of science and technology in global society, and the policy responses that shape its development.
Comprising 25 specially–commissioned chapters, the Handbook addresses major trends in global policy, including a significant shift toward private scientific research, the change in the distribution of science and technical knowledge, and a heightened awareness amongst policy–makers of the economic and technological impact of scientific activity. Accessibly written, it provides an invaluable one–stop reference for students, social researchers, scientists, and policy makers alike.
Notes on Contributors viii
Editors Introduction: Science, Technology, and Innovation Go Global 1Daniele Archibugi and Andrea Filippetti
Part I Global Trends 13
1 The Convergence Paradox: The Global Evolution of National Innovation Systems 15Fulvio Castellacci and Jose Miguel Natera
2 World Top University Rankings: From Distribution to Implications on National Knowledge Creation and Competitiveness 46Thanh Quang Le and Kam Ki Tang
3 The International Race of Top Supercomputers and Its Implications 69Kam Ki Tang and Thanh Quang Le
4 Soft Innovation and Changes in Product Aesthetics: An Omitted Dimension in Economic Analyses of Innovation Activities 88Paul Stoneman
5 Is the World of Science Moving to the East?: What Bibliometrics Says 113Ping Zhou and Jiang Li
Part II The Globalization of Technology and Innovation 129
6 Innovation, Internationalization, and the Transnational Corporation 131Grazia Ietto ]Gillies
7 International R&D Alliances by Firms: Origins and Development 148Rajneesh Narula and Andrea Martinez ]Noya
8 The Globalization of Knowledge ]Intensive Services 175Ian Miles and Marcela Miozzo
9 Capital and Technology Flows: Changing Technology Acquisition Strategies in Developing Countries 195Suma Athreye and Sandeep Kapur
10 Clusters and Global Innovation: The Role of Connectedness and Connectivity 216Mark Lorenzen and Ram Mudambi
11 New Product Development in Emerging Economies: Innovation in Reverse from China 232Simone Corsi, Alberto Di Minin, and Andrea Piccaluga
12 Crowdfunding: Toward the Democratization of Innovation Financing 249Alessandro Cordova, Johanna Dolci, and Gianfranco Gianfrate
Part III Spaces and Flows of Knowledge 271
13 Harnessing the Geography of Innovation: Toward Evidence ]Based Economic Development Policy 273Maryann P. Feldman and Jongmin Choi
14 MNE Innovation Networks and the Role of Cities 294Simona Iammarino and Philip McCann
15 The Rise of the Global Creative Class 317Richard Florida and Charlotta Mellander
16 Global Science Collaboration 347Stefan Hennemann and Ingo Liefner
17 International Mobility of Scientists 368Kieron Flanagan
18 The Role of Global Connectedness in the Development of Indigenous Science in Middle ]Income Countries 386Helena Barnard, Robin Cowan, Marta Fernandez de Arroyabe Arranz, and Moritz Muller
19 Global Trends in Brain Drain and Likely Scenario in the Coming Years 411Alessio Terzi
Part IV Global Institutions and Intellectual Property Rights 423
20 The Globalization of Intellectual Property Rights 425Andrea Filippetti and Daniele Archibugi
21 Patents, Monopoly Power, and the Pricing of Pharmaceuticals in Low ]Income Nations 447F.M. Scherer
22 Global Governance and Intangible Cultural Heritage in the Information Society: At the Crossroads of IPRs and Innovation 462Paolo Davide Farah and Riccardo Tremolada
Part V The Global Governance of Science and Technology 481
23 Knowledge as Global Public Good 483Daniele Archibugi and Andrea Filippetti
24 From Governmental Open Data Toward Governmental Open Innovation (GOI): A Global Perspective 508Sabine Brunswicker and Jeremiah Johnson
25 Serendipity and Chance in Scientific Discovery: Policy Implications for Global Society 529Donald Gillies
26 Global Climate Change and the Direction of Technological Change 544Andrew Tylecote
27 Global Risks: Cause and Consequence of the New Interactions Between Science, Technology, and Society 562Jean ]Yves Heurtebise
28 Globalization, Regionalization, and Technological Change 579Frederick Guy
Daniele Archibugi is a Research Director at the Italian National Research Council (CNR) in Rome, and Professor of Innovation, Governance and Public Policy at Birkbeck, University of London. His publications include The Global Commonwealth of Citizens: Toward Cosmopolitan Democracy (2008), Innovation and Economic Crisis: Lessons and Prospects from the Economic Downturn (with Andrea Filippetti, 2011), and Global Democracy: Normative and Empirical Perspectives (edited with Mathias Koenig–Archibugi and Raffaele Marchetti, 2011).
Andrea Filippettiis Marie Curie Fellow at the London School of Economics and Political Science and Researcher at the National Research Council of Italy (CNR). Previously, he was a Visiting Fellow at Birkbeck College, University of London and Fulbright Fellow at Harvard University. He has collaborated with the Italian Ministry of Development on the evaluation of regional innovation policy. Filippetti is co–author with Daniele Archibugi of Innovation and Economic Crisis: Lessons and Prospects from the Economic Downturn (2011).