Now elementary education has become fundamental right in India. The 86th Constitutional Amendment Act, 2002 led to a new Article 21-A in Part III of the Constitution that made Free and Compulsory Education to all children of 6 to 14 yrs. It is imperative to give good quality elementary education to all children in the age group of 6 to 14 years. . Quality of education at all other higher levels is naturally dependent on the quality of elementary education. Quality elementary education is the essential ingredient of progress and development for any society. Universalization of quality elementary education is still eluding India.
As far as Bihar is concerned conditions are not satisfactory in the state. statistical figures show that conditions for quality primary and elementary education are far from satisfactory in Bihar. Various reports also indicates towards the poor quality of education at Elementary level in Bihar. According to a recent report ASER 2012 conducted by PRATHAM ,in Mathematics 50.5% children of first graders cannot recognize numbers from 1-9; About 43% children of the fourth grade could perform basic subtraction tasks and 31.4% of fifth graders could perform division. Likewise mathematics 41% of third graders can read three letter English words. Barely 30.1% children of the fifth grade can read words and only 16.3% can read simple sentences. 48.9% children of grade VIII could read simple sentence of English.
As far as Hindi is concerned 55.4% children of grade first could not even recognize letters and 80.85 of children of grade VIII could not read text of grade II level. From the above ASER report it appears that quality of elementary education is very poor in Bihar. Reasons may be found by exploring classroom dynamics and interaction in elementary school because maximum teaching - learning takes place inside the classroom .In order to explore Classroom Dynamics and Interaction in Elementary Education of Bihar following problem was identified
Objectives of the Study:
- To find out the nature of classroom dynamics;
- To find out interaction between teacher and learners in classrooms;
- To find out interaction among learners in classrooms;
- To find out the method of classroom transaction adopted by teachers;
- To find out the knowledge of pedagogy possessed by teachers;
- To identify overall strengths and weaknesses of classroom dynamics and classroom interaction; and
- To suggest strategies for effective classroom dynamics and interaction.
In the proposed study the investigator tried to address following research questions.
- What is the nature of classroom dynamics?
- How do teachers and learners interact in classrooms?
- How do learners interact among themselves in classrooms?
- What is the nature and level of interaction between teachers and learners and among learners?
- How do teachers teach in classrooms?
- Are classroom activities and teaching processes conducive to effective classroom dynamics and interaction?
- What is the level of teachers’ knowledge in pedagogy?
- What are the strengths and weaknesses of classroom dynamics and interaction?
- What strategies a teacher can follow to make classroom dynamics and interaction more effective?
This research used observational design. The approach used in this research was the qualitative one supported by simple statistic calculation (percentage) in order to support the findings, where as the analysis model used was the inductive type which started from the data or facts obtained in the field for abstraction and drawing the conclusion
Because of qualitative grounded theory methodology precludes generalization to a larger population the investigator has selected the sample in a way so as to maximize the divergence in data. Therefore multi-stage random sampling method was used for the study. Out of the 38 districts of Bihar 6 districts is selected randomly. Likewise from selected 6 districts 6 sub-divisions and from 6 subdivisions 6 blocks and from 6 blocks 6 panchayats were selected randomly. Finally from 6 selected panchayats 12 elementary schools (two from each panchayat) were selected randomly. In these elementary schools class V and VIII were observed for the proposed study. Two periods of each grade V and VIII will be observed for half an hour in each of the 12 elementary schools. Thus a total of 48 periods were observed by the investigator. Sample of teachers (48) included all the teachers whose classes were observed and 480 students (40students from each school consisting of 20 from class V and 20 from class VIII).
Following tools were used for collecting data:
1 .Observation: The researcher used nonparticipant observation to collect data. The Researcher observed the interaction between teacher and students in teaching - learning process. Besides, the researcher also observed the teacher’s performance during teaching - learning process. This observation was done to explore the classroom dynamics and interaction characteristics and to observe teaching effectiveness in teaching - learning process. For this category wise observation schedule (Elementary Classroom Dynamics & Interaction Observation Schedule, ECDIOS was developed by researcher and used for observing classroom interaction pattern.
2. Questionnaire: Two different Questionnaires were developed by the investigator one for teachers (whose classes were observed) and another for students of Elementary School.