Environmental Engineering. 3 Volume Set. 6th Edition

  • ID: 3148698
  • Book
  • Region: Global
  • 1424 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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First published in 1958, Salvato′s Environmental Engineering has long been the definitive reference for generations of sanitation and environmental engineers. Approaching its fiftieth year of continual publication in a rapidly changing field, the Sixth Edition has been fully reworked and reorganized into the three separate, succinct volumes to adapt to a more complex and scientifically demanding field with dozens of specializations.  This full set includes the following three volumes:

  • Environmental Engineering: Water, Wastewater, Soil and Groundwater Treatment and Remediation, 6th Edition
  • Environmental Health and Safety for Municipal Infrastructure, Land Use and Planning, and Industry, 6th Edition
  • Prevention and Response to Water–, Food–, Soil–, and Air–borne Disease and Illness, 6th Edition
Updated and reviewed by leading experts in the field, this revised edition offers new process and plant design examples and added coverage of such subjects as urban and rural systems. Stressing the practicality and appropriateness of treatment, the Sixth Edition provides realistic solutions for the practicing public health official, water treatment engineer, plant operator, and others in the domestic and industrial waste treatment professions.
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Prevention and Response to Water, Food, Soil and Air-borne Disease and Illness - Vol. 1

PREFACE
CONTRIBUTORS

CHAPTER 1 DISEASE TRANSMISSION BY CONTAMINATED WATER
Richard F. Unz
Introduction
Control of Source (Agent Factors)
Control of Mode of Transmission
Control of Susceptibles (Host Factors)
Typical Epidemic Control
Waterborne Diseases
General
Survival of Pathogens
Substance Dose to Cause Illness
Summary of Characteristics and Control of Water- and Foodborne Diseases
Vehicle or Means by Which Waterborne Diseases
Are Spread
Historical Waterborne Disease Background
Control and Prevention of Waterborne Diseases
Prevention of Waterborne Diseases
Schistosomiasis
Bioterrorism
Smallpox
Anthrax
Plague
Tularemia
Glanders
Botulism
Tetanus or Lockjaw
Noninfectious and Noncommunicable Diseases and
Conditions Associated with the Water Environment
Background
Prevention and Control
Investigation of a Water Disease Outbreak
General
Samples and Specimens
Epidemiology and Risk
Molecular Detection of Waterborne Pathogens
References
Bibliography

CHAPTER 2 CONTROL OF DISEASES OF THE AIR AND LAND
Nabarun Dasgupta
Communicable Diseases
Background
Life Expectancy and Mortality
Framework for Disease Transmission
Regulatory Authorities in Health
Epidemic Control at the Individual Level
Behavioral Change
Antibiotics and Antivirals
Vaccination (or Immunization)
Control of Infectious Agents and Vectors
Environmental Control of Infectious Diseases
Arthropodborne Diseases
Zoonoses and Their Spread
Infectious Respiratory Diseases
Bioterrorism
Smallpox
Anthrax
Noncommunicable Diseases and Conditions Associated with the Environment
Background
Prevention and Control
Environmental Control Legislation
Lead Poisoning
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
Mercury Poisoning
Illnesses Associated with Air Pollution—Lung Diseases
Asbestos Diseases
Malignant Neoplasms (Cancer)
Cardiovascular Diseases
Methemoglobinemia
Dental Caries
Hypothermia
High Environmental Temperatures
Skin Damage from Sunlight
Tap Water Scalds
Sporotrichosis
Definitions
Useful Internet Web Sites
References

CHAPTER 3 FOODBORNE DISEASES
Nabarun Dasgupta
Introduction
Survival of Pathogens
Infectious Dose
Reservoir or Source of Disease Agents
Humans as Reservoirs
Animals as Reservoirs
Food Spoilage
Burden and Cost of Foodborne Illness
Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance
Poultry
Milk and Other Dairy Products
Fruits and Vegetables
Meat and Seafood
Control and Prevention of Foodborne Diseases
Prevention of Foodborne Diseases
Mercury Poisoning
Methemoglobinemia
Dental Caries
Sporotrichosis
Nutritional De?ciency and Related Diseases
References

CHAPTER 4 APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
Harvey F. Ludwig
Abbreviations
Introduction
Background
History
Problem of Developing Countries
Summary of DC Problem
Purpose of This Chapter
Specifc Subjects Included in This Chapter
Environmental Governance
Introduction
Situation in DCs versus United States/ICs
What DC and IAA Practitioners Can Do to Correct
This Problem
Role of the Private Sector
Urban Water Supply
Situation in United States/ICs
Situation in Typical DCs
Suggested Approach for Improving IAA Assistance to DCs
Appropriate Water Quality Standards
Water and Sewer Pipes in Same Trench
Reuse of Treated Wastewater
IAA-Sponsored Community Water Supply Programs
Other Considerations
Water Hyacinths
Water Quality Analyses
Water Quality Monitoring
Role of Private Sector
Integrated Economic-cum-Environmental
Development Planning (IEEDP)
Water Resources Management
Reducing Water Irrigation Requirement
China Studies Sponsored by World Bank
Watershed Management
Urban Sewerage and Excreta Management (USEM)
Situation in ICs
Situation in Typical DCs
Sewerage-cum-Sanitation Systems for 100 Percent
Excreta Management
Sewage Treatment Systems
Sewage Collection (Including Interceptors, Pumping, Transmission)
Sewage Characteristics and Needs for Treatmentand
Point Source Control
Sewage Flow Measurement
Appropriate Standards
Marine Sewage Disposal
Buffer Area Requirements around
Treatment/Pumping Plants
Regional Water Pollution Control
Industrial Wastewater Management
Situation in ICs versus DCs
Discharge into Municipal Sewerage Systems (MSSs)
Discharge Directly to Environment
Appropriate Standards
Cleaner Production (CP)
Industrial Estates
Marine Disposal
Abstract
Urban Solid Waste Management
Situation in United States versus DCs
Practical Sanitary Land?lling Technology for DCs
Experience in Asian DCs
Alternative Disposal Methods
Reclamation of Swamp Lowlands by Refuse
Landfill
Urban Air Pollution Control
Background
Thailand: General Situation
Thailand: Sharing of Controls for Multiple Industries
Air Pollution Control Experience in India
Hazardous Wastes Management
Background
Guidelines Manual for DCs
Megacities: Rural to Urban Migration
Background
Economic Policies for Sustainable Development (ADB)
Existing Situation in the DCs
Urban Growth Management/Action Strategy
Effective Control of Environmental Degradation
Follow-up Evaluation of ADB Study
Essay on Urban Population Growth in DCs
Urban Slums
Background
Indonesia Kampung Improvement Projects (KIPs)
Urban Sanitation
Ports and Harbors
Coastal City of Chonburi in Thailand
Public Water Supply Taps
Rural Sanitation
Very Low Priority for Attention
WHO Manuals
Xiaolangdi Resettlement
Farm Animal Manures
Handwashing
School Sanitation
Hazard of Flies
Septic Tanks for Coastal Homes on Stilts
Water Treatment for Homes Using Surface Waters
Public Health
Assessment by Asian Development Bank
Water Supply and Sanitation
Disease Reporting
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
Diffculties in Application of EIA Process to DCs
Effective Use of EIA Process in DCs
Recommended EIA Report Components
Constraints for Construction Contractors
Need for Effective Training
Environmental Economics and Financing
Inclusion of Environmental Values in Project
Economic Analysis (PEA)
Effect of EPMs on Project Economic and Financial
Analyses
Human Greed Parameter
Economic-cum-Environmental Development
Planning
Value of Human Life
Protecting Precious Eco-Resources
Emergencies Management
Technology Transfer (TT)
Problem
Recommendation
Development Planning for DCs
Social Parameters: Attention to Rural Poverty Poor
Eco-Resources Protection
Affordability of Environmental Improvements
Integrated Economic-cum-Environmental
Development Planning (IEEDP)
Global Warming
Problem
Future of Environment in Developing Countries
Problem of DCs
Changes in Environmental Policy in the ICs
Glimpse of Future
Recommendations
References

CHAPTER 5 ENVIRONMENTAL EMERGENCIES AND EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS
Piero M. Armenante and James P. Mack
Introduction
Emergency Planning for Industrial Facilities
Resources
Emergency Operations Centers (EOCs)
Media Center
Communication Equipment and Alarm Systems
Fire?ghting Facilities, Equipment, and Supplies
Spill and Vapor Release Control Equipment
Medical Facilities, Equipment, and Supplies
Meteorological Equipment
Security and Access Control Equipment
Environmental Testing Systems
Emergency Action Levels
Emergency Response Organization
Initial-Response Organization
Full Emergency Response Organization
Emergency Director (Site Emergency Coordinator)
Response Operations Coordinator
Incident Response Commander (IRC, Field
Operations Coordinator)
Incident Response Team
Emergency Functions
Emergency Response Actions
Concept of Operations
Emergency Response Implementing Procedures
Environmental Considerations
Recovery, Reentry, and Restoration
Training, Exercises, and Plan Maintenance
Emergency Planning at the Local Level
Emergency Management
Leadership Commitment
Planning Team
Planning Process
Hazards Analysis
Damage Assessment and Recovery Operations
Resources
Content of the Plan and Procedures
Plan Integration
Public Information
Public Education
Public Emergency Noti?cation
Conclusion
References

INDEX

Environmental Engineering: Water, Wastewater, Soil and Groundwater Treatment and Remediation - Vol. 2

PREFACE.
CONTRIBUTORS.

CHAPTER 1 WATER SUPPLY (T. David Chinn).
Introduction.
Groundwater Pollution Hazard.
Travel of Pollution through the Ground.
Disease Transmission.
Water Quantity and Quality.
Water Cycle and Geology.
Groundwater Flow.
Groundwater Classification.
Water Quality.
Sampling and Quality of Laboratory Data.
Sanitary Survey and Water Sampling.
Sampling Frequency.
Water Analyses.
Heterotrophic Plate Count—The Standard Plate Count.
Bacterial Examinations.
Biological Monitoring.
Virus Examination.
Protozoa and Helminths Examination.
Specific Pathogenic Organisms.
Physical Examinations.
Microscopic Examination.
Chemical Examinations.
Drinking Water Additives.
Water Quantity.
Water Conservation.
Water Reuse.
Source and Protection of Water Supply.
General.
Groundwater.
Dug Well.
Bored Well.
Driven and Jetted Well.
Drilled Well.
Well Development.
Grouting.
Well Contamination—Cause and Removal.
Spring.
Infiltration Gallery.
Cistern.
Domestic Well-Water Supplies—Special Problems.
Household Treatment Units (Point-of-Use and Point-of-Entry).
Desalination.
References.
Bibliography.

CHAPTER 2 WATER TREATMENT (T. David Chinn).
Treatment of Water—Design and Operation Control.
Introduction.
Surface Water.
Treatment Required.
Disinfection.
Gas Chlorinator
Testing for Residual Chlorine.
Chlorine Treatment for Operation and Microbiological Control.
Distribution System Contamination.
Plain Sedimentation.
Microstraining.
Coagulation, Flocculation, and Settling.
Filtration.
Slow Sand Filter.
Rapid Sand (Granular Media) Filter.
Direct Filtration.
Pressure Sand Filter.
Diatomaceous Earth Filter.
Package Water Treatment Plant.
Water Treatment Plant Wastewater and Sludge.
Causes of Tastes and Odors.
Control of Microorganisms.
Zebra Mussel and Its Control.
Aquatic Weed Control.
Other Causes of Tastes and Odors.
Methods to Remove or Reduce Objectionable Tastes and Odors.
Iron and Manganese Occurrence and Removal.
Corrosion Cause and Control.
Removal of Inorganic Chemicals.
Prevention and Removal of Organic Chemicals.
Water System Design Principles.
Water Quantity.
Design Period.
Watershed Runoff and Reservoir Design.
Intakes and Screens.
Pumping.
Distribution Storage Requirements.
Peak Demand Estimates.
Distribution System Design Standards.
Small Distribution Systems.
Fire Protection.
Cross-Connection Control.
Hydropneumatic Systems.
Pumps.
Displacement Pump.
Centrifugal Pump, Also Submersible and Turbine.
Jet Pump.
Air-Lift Pump.
Hydraulic Ram.
Pump and Well Protection.
Pump Power and Drive.
Automatic Pump Control.
Water Hammer.
Rural Water Conditions in the United States.
Design of a Household Water System.
Examples.
Design of Small Water Systems.
Design of a Camp Water System.
Water System Cost Estimates.
Cleaning and Disinfection.
Wells and Springs.
Pipelines.
Storage Reservoirs and Tanks.
Emergency Water Supply and Treatment.
Boiling.
Chlorination.
Iodine.
Filtration in an Emergency.
Bottled, Packaged, and Bulk Water.
References.
Bibliography.

CHAPTER 3 WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL (John R. Kiefer).
Disease Hazard.
Criteria for Proper Wastewater Disposal.
Definitions.
Small Wastewater Disposal Systems.
Wastewater Characteristics.
Soil Characteristics.
Soil Suitability.
Pollutant Travel from Septic Systems.
Soil Percolation Test.
Sewage Flow Estimates.
Septic Tank.
Care of Septic Tank and Subsurface Absorption Systems.
Subsurface Soil Absorption Systems.
Absorption Field System.
Leaching Pit.
Cesspool.
Dry Well.
Small Wastewater Disposal Systems for Unsuitable Soils or Sites.
General.
Modified Septic Tank Soil Absorption System.
Example.
Capillary Seepage Trench.
Raised Bed Absorption-Evapotranspiration System.
Septic Tank Sand Filter System.
Aerobic Sewage Treatment Unit.
Septic Tank Mound System.
Example 1.
Electric Osmosis System.
Septic Tank Evapotranspiration System.
Example 2.
Water Conservation.
Sewage Works Design—Small Treatment Plants.
Disinfection.
Physical-Chemical Treatment.
Sedimentation.
Coagulation/Flocculation.
Filtration.
Activated Carbon Adsorption.
Biological Treatment.
Wastewater Reuse.
Wastewater Aerosol Hazard.
Wastewater Disposal by Land Treatment.
Advanced Wastewater Treatment.
Typical Designs for Small Treatment Plants.
Standard-Rate Trickling Filter Plant with Imhoff Tank.
High-Rate Trickling Filter Plant with Imhoff Tank.
Intermittent Sand Filter Plant with Imhoff Tank or Septic Tank.
Design of Large Treatment Plants.
Biosolids Treatment and Disposal.
Cost of Sewage Treatment.
Industrial Wastes.
Hazardous and Toxic Liquid Wastes.
Pretreatment.
References.
Bibliography.

INDEX.

Environmental Health and Safety for Municipal Infrastructure, Land Use and Planning and Industry - Vol. 3

PREFACE
CONTRIBUTORS

CHAPTER 1 INDUSTRIAL SOLID WASTES UTILIZATION AND DISPOSAL
Salah M. El-Haggar
Introduction
Life Cycle Assessment and Cradle-To-Cradle Concept
Industrial Waste
Plastics Industry
Thermo Plastics
Thermosets
Mixed Plastic Wastes
Plastic and Cork Industry
Food Industry
Aerobic Fermentation Process
Anaerobic Fermentation Process
Cement Industry
Utilization through Cleaner Production Techniques
Industrial Ecology Approach
Recycling Opportunities
Final Remarks
Marble and Granite Industry
Marble and Granite Waste
Physical and Chemical Properties of Slurry Scrapes
Environmental Impacts and Mitigation
Metal Foundry Industry
Foundry Sand
Uses of Foundry Sand
Iron and Steel Industry
Environmental Impacts
The Problem in Egypt
Potential Utilization of Slag
Final Remarks
Waste Industry
Direct Waste Recycling Industry
Multiple Waste Recycling Industry
Waste Exchange Network Recycling Industry
Environmentally Balanced Industrial Complexes
Multiple Waste Recycling Industry
Mechanical Tests
Environmental Tests
Final Remarks
Disposal of Industrial Wastes
References
Bibliography

CHAPTER 2 RESIDENTIAL AND INSTITUTIONAL ENVIRONMENT
Xudong Yang
Substandard Housing and Its effects
Growth of the Problem
Critical Period
Health, Economic, and Social Effects
Appraisal of Quality of Living
APHA Appraisal Method
Census Data
Health, Economic, and Social Factors Planning
Environmental Sanitation and Hygiene Indices
Other Survey Methods
Health Principles
Minimum Standards Housing Ordinance
Housing Program
Approach
Components of a Good Housing Program
Outline of a Housing Program
Solutions to the Problem
Selection of Work Areas
Enforcement Program
Enforcement Procedures
Housing Form Paragraphs for Letters
Structural Safety
Incomplete Bathroom
No Hot Water
Leaking Water Closet
Floors Not Water Repellent
Exterior Paint Needed
Rotted and Missing Siding
Sagging Wall
Loose Plaster
Leaking Roof
No Gutters or Rain Leaders
No Handrails
Lead Paint
Refuse in Attic
Water-Closet Flush Tank Not Operating Correctly
Garbage Stored in Paper Box or Bag
Dilapidated Garbage Shed
Debris in Yard or Vacant Lot
Dirty Apartment
Overcrowded Sleeping Room
No Window in Habitable Room
Unlawful Third-Floor Occupancy
Unlawful Cellar Occupancy
Clogged Sewer
Unvented Heater
Furnace Flue Defective
Rubber-Hose Gas Connection
Rat Infestation
Roach Infestation
Overgrowing Sewage Disposal System
Improperly Protected Well-Water Supply
Major Repairs
Minor Repairs
Obtain at Least Three Estimates
Plumbing
Plumbing Code
Backrow Prevention
Indirect Waste Piping
Plumbing Details
Indoor Air Quality
Causes and Sources of Indoor Air Pollution
Biological Contaminants and Health Effects
Other Contaminants
Ventilation
Respiratory Illness Control
Venting of Heating Units
Mobile Home Parks
Institution Sanitation
Institutions as Small Communities
Hospitals and Nursing Homes
Hospital and Related Wastes
Schools, Colleges, and Universities
Correctional Institutions
Environment Inspection and Report Outline
Day-Care Centers
References
Bibliography

CHAPTER 3 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
George Tchobanoglous
Defnition of Terms
Integrated Waste Management
Source Reduction
Recycling and Composting
Combustion (Waste-to-Energy)
Landfills
Implementing Integrated Solid Waste Management
Sources, Characteristics, and Quantities of Solid Waste
Sources of Solid Waste
Characteristics of Solid Waste
Commercial and Household Hazardous Waste
Construction and Demolition Debris
Special Wastes Collected Separately
On-Site Handling and Storage
Low-Rise Residential Areas
Low- and Medium-Rise Apartments
High-Rise Apartments
Commercial and Institution
Solid Waste Collection
Type of Service
Collection Frequency
Types of Collection Systems
Personnel Requirements
Health Issues
Transfer and Transport
Economic Analysis of Transfer Operations
Types of Transfer Stations
Vehicles for Uncompacted Wastes
Transfer Station Siting Issues
Waste Reduction and Materials Recovery
Waste Reduction
Materials Recovery and Recycling
Processing Technologies for the Recovery of Materials
Implementation of Materials Recovery Facilities
Technical Considerations in the Planning and Design of MRFs
Composting
Uses of Compost and Constraints to Its Use
Composting Process
Composting Technologies
Compost Process Design and Operational
Considerations
Issues in the Implementation of Composting Facilities
Health Hazards
Sanitary Landfill Planning, Design, and Operation
Sanitary Landfill Planning
Sanitary Landfill Methods
General Landfill Design Issues
Leachate Generation, Control, and Treatment
Landfill Gas Generation, Control, and Recovery and Utilization
Management of Surface Waters
Landfill Mining
Landfill Facilities and Equipment for Disposal by
Sanitary Landfill
Landfill Operation and Supervision
Summary of Recommended Operating Practices
Site Closure or Conversion
Incineration
Description of Operation of MSW Incinerator
Combustion Products and Residues
Types of Incinerators (Combusters)
Control of the Incineration Process
Residue Management
Site Selection, Plant Layout, and Building Design
Issues in the Implementation of Incineration Facilities
Hazardous Wastes
Definition of Hazardous Waste
Legislation
Generation of Hazardous Waste
Hazardous Waste Management
References
Bibliography

CHAPTER 4 AIR POLLUTION AND NOISE CONTROL
Robert Jacko and Timothy La Breche
Air Pollution
Health Effects
Economic Effects
Effects on Plants
Effects on Animals
Aesthetic, Climatic, and Related Effects
Sources and Types of Air Pollution
Manmade Sources
Natural Sources
Types of Air Pollutants
Sampling and Measurement
Particulate Sampling—Ambient Air
Gas Sampling
Smoke and Soiling Measurement
Stack Sampling
Measurement of Materials’ Degradation
Environmental Factors
Meteorology
Topography
Air Pollution Surveys
Inventory
Air Sampling
Basic Studies and Analyses
Ambient Air Quality Standards
Federal Standards
Clean Air Act of 1990
Clean Air Act Amendments of 1997
Pollutant Standards Index (PSI)
Controls
Source Control
Emission Control Equipment
Particulate Collectors and Separators
Gaseous Collectors and Treatment Devices
Dilution by Stack Height
Planning and Zoning
Air Quality Modeling
Program and Enforcement
General
Organization and Staffing
Regulation and Administration
Noise Control
Definitions and Explanation of Selected Terms and
Properties of Sound
Effects of Noise—A Health Hazard
Sources of Noise
Measurement of Noise
Methods for Noise Control
Control of Industrial Noise
Control of Transport Noise
Noise Reduction
Federal Regulations
State and Local Regulations
References
Bibliography
Air Pollution
Noise Control

CHAPTER 5 SURVEYING AND MAPPING FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
Kurt W. Bauer
Introduction
Importance of Maps
Basic Definitions and Concepts
Foundational Elements for Creation of Maps
Map Projections
Tangent Plane Projection
Lambert Projection
Mercator Projection
Transverse Mercator Projection
Other Projections
The State Plane Coordinate System
Survey Control Networks
The National Geodetic Survey Control System
U.S. Public Land Survey System
Map Requirements for Planning and Environmental
Engineering
Desirable Control Survey and Mapping System
Applications of Mapping System
Flood Hazard Area Mapping
Wetland Area Mapping
Public Works Management Information System
Sanitary Sewerage System Attribute Data
Survey Methods
Bibliography

CHAPTER 6 PLANNING AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT
Kurt W. Bauer
Introduction
Definition of Terminology
Criteria for Good Planning
Institutional Structure for Urban Planning
The Comprehensive Plan
The Planning Process
Definition of Planning Area
Inventory and Analysis
Formulation of Objectives and Standards
Identification of Development Requirements
Development and Evaluation of Alternative Plans
Plan Selection and Adoption
Plan Implementation and Policy Development
Public Works Development Process
Outline for a Sewerage Facilities Planning Report
Outline for a Stormwater Management Facilities
Planning Report
Outline for a Water Supply Facilities Planning Report
Public Participation
Continuing Nature of Comprehensive Planning Process
Project Planning
Site Planning
Introduction
Site Selection
Site Assessment
Generally Desirable Site Features
Site Inventory
Improvements Needed
Site Design
Land Subdivision
Subdivision Design
Site Selection and Assessment
Alternative Subdivision Design Types
Utility Services
Fiscal Analysis
Program Planning
Operational Planning
Public Health Element of Comprehensive Plan
Role of Engineering
Environmental Assessment and Impact Statements
Environmental Impact Analysis
National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)
Terminology
Scoping
Recommended Format for Environmental Impact
Statement
Content of an Environmental Impact Statement
Selection and Analysis of Alternatives
Comprehensive Assessment
Bibliography

INDEX

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Nelson L. Nemerow
Franklin J. Agardy
Joseph A. Salvato
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