Fishes of the World. 5th Edition

  • ID: 3148756
  • Book
  • Region: Global
  • 752 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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THE LANDMARK REFERENCE FOR FISH DIVERSITY, UPDATED WITH NEW FINDINGS AND ILLUSTRATIONS

Fishes of the World is the indispensable reference featuring the only modern phylogenetic classification of the world′s fishes, fossil and extant. A true classic in the field, this new fifth edition gathers the latest findings from the scientific community to enable the understanding of fish diversity, family characteristics, evolutionary relationships, and more. New molecular phylogenetic results are assessed and integrated with sound morphological and paleontological evidence. The taxonomy includes both scientific and common names, anatomical characteristics, distributions, biological characteristics, and representative drawings for 536 families of fishes to provide a truly comprehensive resource. First published in 1976, this book has become the de facto reference for fish classication and diversity.

This new fifth edition features:

  • Completely updated and extensively revised ranked classification, including competing hypotheses for many groups
  • A comprehensive taxonomic framework for both fossil and living species
  • Many new phylogenetic diagrams that clarify relationships among lineages
  • More than 525 illustrations, including new diagrams, recently discovered species, and the latest fossil finds

There are more fish species than there are mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians combined. The field is truly massive, making critical analysis and reliable, respected references essential for the advancement of research. Unique in its modern systematic presentation since the first edition, Fishes of the World is relied upon by professional ichthyologists, students, and fish enthusiasts around the globe.

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MEMORIES OF JOE NELSON xxix

FOREWORD xxxiii

PREFACE xxxvii

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xxxix

INTRODUCTION 1

Taxonomic Diversity 3

Importance to People 4

Systematics and Classification 4

Anatomical Terminology 7

Distribution and Biogeography 8

Human Impacts 11

PHYLUM CHORDATA 13

SUBPHYLUM UROCHORDATA (Tunicata: the tunicates) 15

Class ASCIDIACEA (ascidians), 15

Class THALIACEA (salps), 15

Order PYROSOMIDA, 15

Order DOLIOLIDA, 15

Order SALPIDA, 15

Class APPENDICULARIA, 15

SUBPHYLUM CEPHALOCHORDATA (Acrania, in part) 16

Order AMPHIOXIFORMES (lancelets), 16

Family BRANCHIOSTOMATIDAE, 16

Family EPIGONICHTHYIDAE, 16

SUBPHYLUM CRANIATA 18

INFRAPHYLUM MYXINOMORPHI 19

Class MYXINI, 20

Order MYXINIFORMES (1) hagfishes, 20

Family MYXINIDAE (1) hagfishes, 20

INFRAPHYLUM VERTEBRATA (vertebrates) 22

SUPERCLASS PETROMYZONTOMORPHI 23

Class PETROMYZONTIDA, 23

Order PETROMYZONTIFORMES (2) lampreys, 23

Family PETROMYZONTIDAE (2) northern lampreys, 24

Family GEOTRIIDAE (3) southern lampreys, 25

Family MORDACIIDAE (4) southern topeyed lampreys, 26

SUPERCLASS GNATHOSTOMATA (jawed vertebrates) 34

EUGNATHOSTOMATA, 40

GRADE CHONDRICHTHYOMORPHI 40

Class CHONDRICHTHYES cartilaginous fishes, 40

Superorder HOLOCEPHALIMORPHA, 50

Order CHIMAERIFORMES (3) chimaeras, 51

Family CALLORHINCHIDAE (5) plownose chimaeras, 52

Family RHINOCHIMAERIDAE (6) longnose chimaeras, 52

Family CHIMAERIDAE (7) shortnose chimaeras or ratfishes, 53

Subclass EUSELACHII (sharks, rays, and related fossils), 53

Infraclass ELASMOBRANCHII, 56

Division SELACHII sharks, 58

Superorder GALEOMORPHI, 58

Order HETERODONTIFORMES (4) bullhead sharks, 59

Family HETERODONTIDAE (8) bullhead sharks, 59

Order ORECTOLOBIFORMES (5) carpet sharks, 59

Family PARASCYLLIIDAE (9) collared carpet sharks, 60

Family BRACHAELURIDAE (10) blind sharks, 60

Family ORECTOLOBIDAE (11) wobbegongs, 61

Order LAMNIFORMES (6) mackerel sharks, 63

Order CARCHARHINIFORMES (7) ground sharks, 68

Superorder SQUALOMORPHI, 73

Series HEXANCHIDA, 73

Order HEXANCHIFORMES (8) six–gill sharks, 73

Family CHLAMYDOSELACHIDAE (31) frilled sharks, 74

Family HEXANCHIDAE (32) cow sharks, 74

Series SQUALIDA, 75

Order SQUALIFORMES (9) dogfish sharks, 75

Series SQUATINIDA, 78

Order ECHINORHINIFORMES (10) bramble sharks, 78

Family ECHINORHINIDAE (39) bramble sharks, 78

Order SQUATINIFORMES (11) angel sharks, 79

Family SQUATINIDAE (40) angel sharks, 79

Order PRISTIOPHORIFORMES (12) saw sharks, 80

Family PRISTIOPHORIDAE (41) saw sharks, 80

Division BATOMORPHI rays, 80

Order TORPEDINIFORMES (13) electric rays, 82

Family TORPEDINIDAE (42) torpedo electric rays, 82

Family NARCINIDAE (43) numbfishes, 83

Order RAJIFORMES (14) skates, 84

Family RAJIDAE (44) skates, 84

Order PRISTIFORMES (15) guitarfishes and sawfishes, 85

Order MYLIOBATIFORMES (16) stingrays, 87

Grade TELEOSTOMI 95

Class OSTEICHTHYES bony fishes and tetrapods, 101

Subclass SARCOPTERYGII lobe–finned fishes and tetrapods, 102

Infraclass ACTINISTIA coelacanths, 103

Order COELACANTHIFORMES (17) coelacanths, 104

Family LATIMERIIDAE (59) gombessas or coelacanths, 105

Infraclass ONYCHODONTIDA, 106

Infraclass DIPNOMORPHA, 106

Superorder DIPNOI, 107

Order CERATODONTIFORMES (18) living lungfishes and their fossil relatives, 108

Family NEOCERATODONTIDAE (60) Australian lungfishes, 109

Family LEPIDOSIRENIDAE (61) South American lungfishes, 109

Family PROTOPTERIDAE (62) African lungfishes, 109

Infraclass TETRAPODA tetrapods, 111

Subclass ACTINOPTERYGII ray–finned fishes, 111

Infraclass CLADISTIA, 116

Order POLYPTERIFORMES (19) bichirs, 116

Family POLYPTERIDAE (63) bichirs, 117

Infraclass CHONDROSTEI, 118

Order ACIPENSERIFORMES (20) paddlefishes and sturgeons, 118

Family POLYODONTIDAE (64) paddlefishes, 118

Family ACIPENSERIDAE (65) sturgeons, 119

NEOPTERYGII, 121

Infraclass HOLOSTEI (gars, bowfins, and relatives), 121

Division GINGLYMODI, 122

Order LEPISOSTEIFORMES (21) gars, 122

Family LEPISOSTEIDAE (66) gars, 123

Division HALECOMORPHI, 124

Order AMIIFORMES (22) bowfins, 125

Family AMIIDAE (67) bowfins, 126

Division TELEOSTEOMORPHA, 126

Subdivision TELEOSTEI, 128

Supercohort TELEOCEPHALA crown–group Teleostei, 132

Cohort ELOPOMORPHA, 133

Order ELOPIFORMES (23) tenpounders, 135

Family ELOPIDAE (68) tenpounders (ladyfishes), 135

Family MEGALOPIDAE (69) tarpons, 135

Order ALBULIFORMES (24) bonefishes, 136

Family ALBULIDAE (70) bonefishes, 136

Order NOTACANTHIFORMES (25) halosaurs and deep–sea spiny eels, 137

Family HALOSAURIDAE (71) halosaurs, 137

Family NOTACANTHIDAE (72) deep–sea spiny eels, 138

Order ANGUILLIFORMES (26) eels, 139

OSTEOGLOSSOCEPHALA, 153

Cohort OSTEOGLOSSOMORPHA, 153

Order HIODONTIFORMES (27) mooneyes, 155

Family HIODONTIDAE (92) mooneyes, 155

Order OSTEOGLOSSIFORMES (28) bonytongues, 155

CLUPEOCEPHALA, 160

Cohort OTOCEPHALA, 161

Superorder CLUPEOMORPHA, 162

Order CLUPEIFORMES (29) herrings, 164

Superorder ALEPOCEPHALI, 172

Order ALEPOCEPHALIFORMES (30) slickheads and tubeshoulders, 172

Superorder OSTARIOPHYSI, 174

Series ANOTOPHYSI, 175

Order GONORYNCHIFORMES (31) milkfishes, 175

Series OTOPHYSI, 179

Subseries Cypriniphysi, 180

Order CYPRINIFORMES (32) carps, loaches, minnows, and relatives, 180

Family CYPRINIDAE (109) minnows, carps, and loaches, 181

Subseries Characiphysi, 193

Order CHARACIFORMES (33) characins, 193

Subseries Siluriphysi, 207

Order SILURIFORMES (34) catfishes, 207

Order GYMNOTIFORMES (35) Neotropical knifefishes, 238

Cohort EUTELEOSTEI, 241

Order LEPIDOGALAXIIFORMES (36) salamanderfishes, 242

Family LEPIDOGALAXIIDAE (186) salamanderfishes, 242

Superorder PROTACANTHOPTERYGII, 243

Order SALMONIFORMES (37) trout, salmon, and whitefish, 244

Family SALMONIDAE (187) trout, salmon, and whitefish, 244

Order ESOCIFORMES (38) pikes and mudminnows, 248

Family ESOCIDAE (188) pikes, 249

Family UMBRIDAE (189) mudminnows, 251

Superorder OSMEROMORPHA, 252

Order ARGENTINIFORMES (39) marine smelts, 252

Order GALAXIIFORMES (40) galaxiiforms, 254

Family GALAXIIDAE (194) galaxiids, 254

Order OSMERIFORMES (41) freshwater smelts, 256

Order STOMIIFORMES (42) dragonfishes, 259

Superorder ATELEOPODOMORPHA, 265

Order ATELEOPODIFORMES (43) jellynose fishes, 265

Family ATELEOPODIDAE (204) jellynose fishes, 265

Superorder CYCLOSQUAMATA, 266

Order AULOPIFORMES (44) lizardfishes, 266

Superorder SCOPELOMORPHA, 276

Order MYCTOPHIFORMES (45) lanternfishes, 276

Family NEOSCOPELIDAE (221) blackchins, 277

Family MYCTOPHIDAE (222) lanternfishes, 277

Superorder LAMPRIMORPHA, 280

Order LAMPRIFORMES (46) opahs, 280

Superorder PARACANTHOPTERYGII, 284

Order POLYMIXIIFORMES (47) beardfishes, 285

Family POLYMIXIIDAE (229) beardfishes, 286

Order PERCOPSIFORMES (48) trout–perches, 287

Family PERCOPSIDAE (230) trout–perches, 287

Family APHREDODERIDAE (231) pirate perches, 288

Family AMBLYOPSIDAE (232) cavefishes, 289

Order ZEIFORMES (49) dories, 289

Order STYLEPHORIFORMES (50) tube–eyes or thread–tails, 293

Family STYLEPHORIDAE (239) tube–eyes or thread–tails, 293

Order GADIFORMES (51) cods and hakes, 293

Superorder ACANTHOPTERYGII, 302

Series BERYCIDA, 303

Order HOLOCENTRIFORMES (52) squirrelfishes, 304

Family HOLOCENTRIDAE (253) squirrelfishes, 304

Order TRACHICHTHYIFORMES (53) roughies, 305

Order BERYCIFORMES (54) beryciforms, 308

Series PERCOMORPHA, 314

Subseries Ophidiida, 315

Order OPHIDIIFORMES (55) cusk–eels, 315

Subseries Batrachoidida, 320

Order BATRACHOIDIFORMES (56) toadfishes, 320

Family BATRACHOIDIDAE (272) toadfishes, 321

Subseries Gobiida, 323

Order KURTIFORMES (57) nurseryfishes and cardinalfishes, 324

Family KURTIDAE (273) nurseryfishes, 324

Family APOGONIDAE (274) cardinalfishes, 324

Order GOBIIFORMES (58) gobies, 326

Subseries Ovalentaria, 333

Order MUGILIFORMES (59) mullets, 341

Family MUGILIDAE (291) mullets, 342

Order CICHLIFORMES (60) cichlids and convict blennies, 342

Family CICHLIDAE (292) cichlids, 342

Family PHOLIDICHTHYIDAE (293) convict blenny, 345

Order BLENNIIFORMES (61) Blennies, 346

Order GOBIESOCIFORMES (62) clingfishes, 351

Family GOBIESOCIDAE (300) clingfishes, 352

Order ATHERINIFORMES (63) silversides, 354

Order BELONIFORMES (64) needlefishes, 363

Order CYPRINODONTIFORMES (65) killifishes, 369

Order SYNBRANCHIFORMES (66) swamp eels, 380

Order CARANGIFORMES (67) jacks, 383

Order ISTIOPHORIFORMES (68) barracudas and billfishes, 387

Order ANABANTIFORMES (69) labyrinth fishes, 390

Order PLEURONECTIFORMES (70) flatfishes, 395

Order SYNGNATHIFORMES (71) pipefishes and seahorses, 405

Order ICOSTEIFORMES (72) ragfishes, 412

Family ICOSTEIDAE (366) ragfishes, 412

Order CALLIONYMIFORMES (73), 412

Family CALLIONYMIDAE (367) dragonets, 412

Family DRACONETTIDAE (368) slope dragonets, 413

Order SCOMBROLABRACIFORMES (74) longfin escolars, 413

Family SCOMBROLABRACIDAE (369) longfin escolars, 413

Order SCOMBRIFORMES (75) mackerels, 414

Order TRACHINIFORMES (76), 421

Order PERCIFORMES (78) perches, 430

Order SCORPAENIFORMES (79) mail–cheeked fishes, 467

Order MORONIFORMES (80) temperate basses, 495

Order ACANTHURIFORMES (81) surgeonfishes and relatives, 497

Order SPARIFORMES (82) breams and porgies, 502

Order CAPROIFORMES (83) boarfishes, 506

Family CAPROIDAE (508) boarfishes, 507

Order LOPHIIFORMES (84) anglerfishes, 508

Order TETRAODONTIFORMES (85) plectognaths, 518

BIBLIOGRAPHY 527

INDEX 651

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Joseph S. Nelson
Terry C. Grande
Mark V. H. Wilson
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