Design Thinking. New Product Development Essentials from the PDMA

  • ID: 3148803
  • Book
  • 456 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Implement a systematic, more creative and human–centered approach to innovation

Cutting–edge solutions don′t come from traditional processes, and consistent innovation cannot thrive without Design Thinking, a philosophy of targeted, systematic, human–centered thinking. This strategic mindset empowers employees across the organization to approach the most challenging innovation opportunities with confidence.

Twenty–five curated chapters from leading industry experts and academics equip individuals and organizations with toolsets, insights, and perspective for applying Design Thinking in a wide variety of contexts, including new product and service development, new venture creation, business model design, and process improvement. With this tex.you will:

  • Develop a context–inspired, human–centered approach to innovation
  • Dig deeply into your customers′ worlds to gain a values–based understanding of their needs
  • Maximize the creative output of each individual within team–based innovation projects
  • Enable supportive, cross–functional collaboration at every stage of the innovation process
  • Integrate design thinking at all levels of the organization to solve your most vexing challenges.

Design Thinking merges strategy and reality to unleash innovation and fortify your business.

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About the Editors xvii

1 A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO DESIGN THINKING 1Michael G. Luchs

Introduction 1

1.1 The Concept of Design Thinking and Its Role within NPD and Innovation 1

1.2 A Framework of Design Thinking 4

1.3 Design Thinking as a Nonlinear Process 8

1.4 The Principles and the Mindset of Design Thinking 9

PART I: DESIGN THINKING TOOLS 13

2 INSPIRATIONAL DESIGN BRIEFING 15Søren Petersen, Jaewoo Joo

Introduction 15

2.1 Nine Criteria of an Inspirational Design Brief 16

2.2 Writing the Inspirational Design Brief 21

2.3 Research Findings about Inspirational Design Briefs 23

2.4 Three Pitfalls to Avoid 24

2.5 Conclusion: Keys to Success 24

3 PERSONAS: POWERFUL TOOL FOR DESIGNERS 27Robert Chen, Jeanny Liu

Introduction 27

3.1 Defining Personas 28

3.2 The Importance of Personas 29

3.3 Creating Personas 30

3.4 Illustrative Application of Personas 31

3.5 Summary 37

3.6 Conclusion 38

4 CUSTOMER EXPERIENCE MAPPING: THE SPRINGBOARD TO INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS 41Jonathan Bohlmann, John McCreery

Introduction 41

4.1 Inputs to the Experience Map 43

4.2 The Experience Mapping Process 48

4.3 The Experience Map as a Springboard to Innovative Solutions 50

4.4 Conclusion 55

5 DESIGN THINKING TO BRIDGE RESEARCH AND CONCEPT DESIGN 59Lauren Weigel

Introduction 59

5.1 Challenges in Idea Generation 59

5.2 The Need for a Systematic Method to Connect to the User 60

5.3 The Visualize, Empathize, and Ideate Method 61

5.4 The Importance of Visualizing and Empathizing before Ideating 63

5.5 Applying the Method 64

5.6 Conclusion 68

6 BOOSTING CREATIVITY IN IDEA GENERATION USING DESIGN HEURISTICS 71Colleen M. Seifert, Richard Gonzalez, Seda Yilmaz, Shanna Daly

Introduction 71

6.1 Where Do New Design Ideas Come From? 72

6.2 A Tool to Assist with Idea Generation: Design Heuristics 72

6.3 How Design Heuristics Were Identified: The Evidence Base 73

6.4 77 Design Heuristics for Idea Generation 74

6.5 How to Use Design Heuristics to Generate Design Concepts 77

6.6 Evidence of the Value of the Design Heuristics Tool 80

6.7 Conclusion 80

6.8 Appendix 81

7 THE KEY ROLES OF STORIES AND PROTOTYPES IN DESIGN THINKING 87Mark Zeh

Introduction 87

7.1 A Design Thinking Product Development Framework 87

7.2 What Is a Story? 89

7.3 What Is a Prototype? 92

7.4 Putting It Together Combining Stories and Prototypes 95

7.5 Employing Stories and Prototypes in Your Process 100

7.6 Conclusion 102

PART II: DESIGN THINKING WITHIN THE FIRM 105

8 INTEGRATING DESIGN INTO THE FUZZY FRONT END OF THE INNOVATION PROCESS 107Giulia Calabretta, Gerda Gemser

Introduction 107

8.1 Challenges in the FFE 108

8.2 Design Practices and Tools for Assisting in Problem Definition 109

8.3 Design Practices and Tools for Assisting in Information Management 112

8.4 Design Practices and Tools for Assisting in Stakeholder Management 117

8.5 How to Integrate Design Professionals in FFE 120

8.6 Conclusion 122

9 THE ROLE OF DESIGN IN EARLY–STAGE VENTURES: HOW TO HELP START–UPS UNDERSTAND AND APPLY DESIGN PROCESSES TO NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT 125J. D. Albert

Introduction: An Emerging Start–up Culture 125

9.1 The Basics 126

9.2 The Process 128

9.3 Troubleshooting Common Mistakes 138

10 DESIGN THINKING FOR NON–DESIGNERS: A GUIDE FOR TEAM TRAINING AND IMPLEMENTATION 143Victor P. Seidel, Sebastian K. Fixson

Introduction 143

10.1 What Do Non–Designers Need to Learn? 144

10.2 Challenges Teams Face with Design Thinking 145

10.3 Three Team Strategies for Success 147

10.4 Conclusion 154

11 DEVELOPING DESIGN THINKING: GE HEALTHCARE S MENLO INNOVATION MODEL 157Sarah J. S.Wilner

Introduction 157

11.1 GE Healthcare s Design Organization 158

11.2 The Menlo Innovation Ecosystem 158

11.3 The Significance of Design Thinking at GE Healthcare 168

11.4 Conclusion 171

12 LEADING FOR A CORPORATE CULTURE OF DESIGN THINKING 173Nathan Owen Rosenberg Sr., Marie–Caroline Chauvet, Jon S. Kleinman

Introduction 173

12.1 The Critical Impact of Corporate Culture on Design Thinking 173

12.2 What Is Corporate Culture? 176

12.3 Corporate Forces that Undermine Design Thinking 178

12.4 Four Pillars of Innovation for Enabling Design Thinking 180

12.5 Four Stages of Transforming to a Culture of Design Thinking 184

12.6 Conclusion 186

13 KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AS INTELLIGENCE AMPLIFICATION FOR BREAKTHROUGH INNOVATIONS 187Vadake K. Narayanan, Gina Colarelli O Connor

Introduction 187

13.1 Designing Amidst Uncertainty 188

13.2 Knowledge Management Tasks for Breakthrough Innovation: From Intelligence Leveraging to Intelligence Amplification 190

13.3 KM and Selected Tools for Breakthrough Innovation 194

13.4 Organizational Implications 199

13.5 Appendices 200

14 STRATEGICALLY EMBEDDING DESIGN THINKING IN THE FIRM 205Pietro Micheli, Helen Perks

Introduction 205

14.1 Role of Key Personnel 207

14.2 Organizational Practices 210

14.3 Organizational Climate and Culture 212

14.4 Embedding Design Thinking 215

PART III: DESIGN THINKING FOR SPECIFIC CONTEXTS 221

15 DESIGNING SERVICES THAT SING AND DANCE 223Marina Candi, Ahmad Beltagui

Introduction 223

15.1 Products, Services, and Experiences 224

15.2 How to Design for Compelling Service Experiences 227

15.3 Services that Sing and Dance 232

15.4 Designing a Service Experience Is Never Finished 233

15.5 Conclusion 234

16 CAPTURING CONTEXT THROUGH SERVICE DESIGN STORIES 237KatarinaWetter–Edman, Peter R. Magnusson

Introduction 237

16.1 Service Design 239

16.2 Context, Stories, and Designers as Interpreters 240

16.3 Context Through Narratives The CTN Method 241

16.4 Case Illustration of the CTN Method 241

16.5 Conclusion and Recommendations 248

17 OPTIMAL DESIGN FOR RADICALLY NEW PRODUCTS 253Steve Hoeffler, Michal Herzenstein, Tamar Ginzburg

Introduction 253

17.1 Communicate the Challenge Goal toward Radically New Products 254

17.2 Shift Time Frames to Future and Past 256

17.3 Promote an Emerging Technology Focus across the Consumption Chain 257

17.4 Promote the Use of Analogical Thinking 259

17.5 Look for Novel Ways to Solve Simple Problems 261

17.6 Leverage More Ideators via Crowdsourcing 261

17.7 Conclusion 263

18 BUSINESS MODEL DESIGN 265John Aceti, Tony Singarayar

Introduction 265

18.1 What Is a Business Model? 265

18.2 When Do I Need to Think about My Business Model? 267

18.3 What Value Should I Expect from a Business Model Design? 268

18.4 What Method Can I Use to Design a Business Model? 269

18.5 Process of Designing a Business Model 271

18.6 How Do I Implement My New or Revised Business Model? 276

18.7 Conclusion 277

19 LEAN START–UP IN LARGE ENTERPRISES USING HUMAN–CENTERED DESIGN THINKING: A NEW APPROACH FOR DEVELOPING TRANSFORMATIONAL AND DISRUPTIVE INNOVATIONS 281Peter Koen

Introduction 281

19.1 Lean Start–up 282

19.2 Transformational and Disruptive Innovation: Defining the Domain Where the Lean Start–up Process Should Be Used 285

19.3 Why Is a Business Model a Valuable Part of the Lean Start–up Process? 286

19.4 Lean Start–up through the Lens of Human–Centered Design 289

19.5 Implementing the Lean Start–up Approach in Enterprises 296

19.6 Conclusion 298

PART IV: CONSUMER RESPONSES AND VALUES 301

20 CONSUMER RESPONSE TO PRODUCT FORM 303Mariëlle E. H. Creusen

Introduction 303

20.1 How Product Form Influences Consumer Product Evaluation 304

20.2 Product Form Characteristics and Consumer Perceptions 305

20.3 In What Way Will Product Form Impact Consumer Product Evaluation? 308

20.4 Practical Implications 314

21 DRIVERS OF DIVERSITY IN CONSUMERS AESTHETIC RESPONSE TO PRODUCT DESIGN 319Adèle Gruen

Introduction 319

21.1 Culture 320

21.2 Individual Characteristics 324

21.3 Situational Factors 328

21.4 Discussion 329

21.5 Conclusion 330

22 FUTURE–FRIENDLY DESIGN: DESIGNING FOR AND WITH FUTURE CONSUMERS 333Andy Hines

Introduction 333

22.1 A Framework for Understanding Changing Consumer Values 334

22.2 Emerging Consumer Needs 335

22.3 Going Forward 345

PART V: SPECIAL TOPICS IN DESIGN THINKING 349

23 FACE AND INTERFACE: RICHER PRODUCT EXPERIENCES THROUGH INTEGRATED USER INTERFACE AND INDUSTRIAL DESIGN 351Keith S. Karn

Introduction 351

23.1 Divergent Paths: User Interface in Physical and Digital Products 352

23.2 Emerging User Interface Technologies 354

23.3 New Technology Demands a New Development Process 355

23.4 Seven Questions to Guide the Integration of Industrial Design with User Interface Design 359

23.5 Practice Makes Perfect 365

24 INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY PROTECTION FOR DESIGNS 367Daniel Harris Brean

Introduction 367

24.1 Design in Intellectual Property 367

24.2 Utility Patents 368

24.3 Design Patents 373

24.4 Copyrightable Designs for Useful Articles 376

24.5 Trademark Rights for Product Design 377

24.6 Legal Overlap, Trade–Offs, and Strategic Considerations 379

24.7 Conclusion 380

25 DESIGN THINKING FOR SUSTAINABILITY 381Rosanna Garcia, PhD, Scott Dacko, PhD

Introduction 381

25.1 Design for X ? 382

25.2 Design Thinking Integrated into Design for Sustainability 386

25.3 Conclusion 397

INDEX 401

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Michael G. Luchs
Scott Swan
Abbie Griffin
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