Iron Ore

  • ID: 3149038
  • Book
  • 666 Pages
  • Elsevier Science and Technology
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Iron Ore: Mineralogy, Processing and Environmental Issues summarizes recent, key research on the characterization of iron ores, including important topics such as beneficiation (separation and refining), agglomeration (e.g., production of pellets or powders), blast furnace technology for smelting, and environmental issues relating to its production.

The text is an ideal reference on the topic during a time when iron ore production has increased significantly, driven by increasing demand from countries such as India and China.

- Provides a comprehensive overview of the global iron ore industry, exploring its characteristics and characterization- Expert analysis of quality requirements for iron production, iron ore agglomeration technologies, environmental issues, and low-emission technologies- Timely text to accompany the increased iron ore production occurring in developing countries like India and China

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  • List of Contributors
  • Preface
  • 1: Introduction: overview of the global iron ore industry
    • Abstract
    • 1.1 Introduction
    • 1.2 Iron ore mining operations by country
    • 1.3 Technology status and challenges
    • 1.4 Iron ore outlook
  • Part One: Characterization and analysis of iron ore
    • 2: Mineralogical, chemical, and physical characteristics of iron ore
      • Abstract
      • 2.1 Introduction
      • 2.2 Mineralogy
      • 2.3 Chemical composition
      • 2.4 Physical properties
      • 2.5 Future trends
    • 3: XRD analysis and evaluation of iron ores and sinters
      • Abstract
      • 3.1 Introduction
      • 3.2 Principles of powder X-ray diffraction
      • 3.3 Rietveld analysis
      • 3.4 Sources of error in XRD analysis
      • 3.5 Applications of cluster analysis
      • 3.6 Applicability of XRD analysis
      • 3.7 Use of mass balancing in iron ore analysis
      • 3.8 The principal minerals and phases
      • 3.9 XRD for the characterization of Iron ores
      • 3.10 XRD in sintering and pelletizing
      • 3.11 Summary and conclusions
    • 4: Automated optical image analysis of natural and sintered iron ore
      • Abstract
      • 4.1 Introduction: Overview of optical image analysis technique
      • 4.2 Mineralogical characteristics of iron ore and sinter
      • 4.3 Automated optical image analysis (OIA)
      • 4.4 Application of automated OIA to natural and sintered iron ore
    • 5: Quantitative analysis of iron ore using SEM-based technologies
      • Abstract
      • 5.1 Introduction
      • 5.2 Principles of SEM-based technologies
      • 5.3 Application of automated SEM-based technologies to ore characterization
      • 5.4 Characterization of natural and sintered iron ore using QEMSCAN
      • 5.5 Summary
      • 5.6 Future trends
    • 6: Characterization of iron ore by visible and infrared reflectance and, Raman spectroscopies
      • Abstract
      • 6.1 Introduction
      • 6.2 Principles of reflectance and Raman spectroscopies
      • 6.3 Technologies
      • 6.4 Reflectance and Raman spectroscopies of iron ore minerals
      • 6.5 Future trends
  • Part Two: Extraction, comminution, separation, and beneficiation of iron ore
    • 7: Iron ore extraction techniques
      • Abstract
      • 7.1 Introduction
      • 7.2 Iron ore mining-an historical UK context
      • 7.3 Underground iron ore mining: Kiruna, Sweden
      • 7.4 Modern-day surface mining: the Pilbara deposit
      • 7.5 Modern day surface mining: iron ore in Minas Gerais Province, Brazil
      • 7.6 Conclusions
    • 8: Developments in iron ore comminution and classification technologies
      • Abstract
      • 8.1 Introduction
      • 8.2 Iron ore crushing and screening
      • 8.3 Iron ore grinding and classification
      • 8.4 Future trends in iron ore comminution and classification
    • 9: Developments in the physical separation of iron ore: magnetic separation
      • Abstract
      • 9.1 Introduction
      • 9.2 Principle of magnetic separation
      • 9.3 Magnetic separators
      • 9.4 Typical flow sheets for iron ore separation
      • 9.5 Challenges and recent advances in magnetic separation
      • 9.6 Summary
    • 10: Developments in nonmagnetic physical separation technologies for hematitic/goethitic iron ore
      • Abstract
      • 10.1 Physical processing for enhanced chemical and/or physical properties
      • 10.2 Dense medium separation
      • 10.3 Jigging
      • 10.4 Upflow classification
      • 10.5 Spiraling for iron ore beneficiation
    • 11: Developments in the physiochemical separation of iron ore
      • Abstract
      • 11.1 Introduction
      • 11.2 Mineral properties
      • 11.3 Iron ore flotation
      • 11.4 Key challenges and future directions
    • 12: Developments in chemical separation of iron ore
      • Abstract
      • 12.1 Introduction
      • 12.2 Phosphorus removal
      • 12.3 Removal of silicon, aluminum, and sulfur minerals
      • 12.4 Summary and future trends
    • 13: Application of biotechnology in iron ore beneficiation
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • 13.1 Introduction
      • 13.2 Microbial adhesion to mineral surfaces
      • 13.3 Bioleaching for phosphorus removal from iron ores
      • 13.4 Biobeneficiation of sulfide ores
      • 13.5 Biobeneficiation of iron ore
      • 13.6 Future trends
  • Part Three: Iron ore agglomeration processes and blast furnace iron-making technology
    • 14: Iron ore sintering
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • 14.1 Introduction
      • 14.2 Effect of iron ore characteristics on sintering
      • 14.3 Evaluation of iron ore for the sintering process
      • 14.4 Recent developments in iron ore sintering
      • 14.5 Conclusions
    • 15: Iron ore pelletization
      • Abstract
      • 15.1 Introduction
      • 15.2 Specification requirements of pellet feed
      • 15.3 Green ball formation and properties
      • 15.4 Induration of green pellets
      • 15.5 Quality requirements for fired pellets
      • 15.6 Conclusions
    • 16: Quality requirements of iron ore for iron production
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • 16.1 Introduction to ironmaking technologies
      • 16.2 Quality requirements of iron ore for the BF ironmaking process
      • 16.3 Quality requirements of iron ore for alternative ironmaking processes
      • 16.4 Summary
    • 17: Recent developments in blast furnace iron-making technology
      • Abstract
      • 17.1 Introduction
      • 17.2 Blast furnace design and facilities
      • 17.3 Blast furnace process
      • 17.4 Key innovations and future trends
  • Part Four: Environmental issues and low emission technologies
    • 18: Sintering emissions and their mitigation technologies
      • Abstract
      • 18.1 Introduction
      • 18.2 CO2 emissions and their mitigation
      • 18.3 SOx emissions and their mitigation
      • 18.4 NOx emissions and their mitigation technologies
      • 18.5 Dioxin emissions and their mitigation
      • 18.6 Dust emissions and their reduction
      • 18.7 Utilization of biomass materials in iron ore sintering
      • 18.8 Conclusions
    • 19: Utilization of biomass as an alternative fuel in ironmaking
      • Abstract
      • 19.1 Introduction
      • 19.2 Potential applications of biomass-derived materials and impact on net GHG emissions
      • 19.3 Physical and chemical properties of biomass-derived chars to optimize ironmaking operations
      • 19.4 Economic sources of biomass fuel
      • 19.5 Pyrolysis of biomass for ironmaking applications
      • 19.6 Applications in ironmaking
      • 19.7 Future trends
      • 19.8 Sources of further information and advice
    • 20: Life cycle assessment of iron ore mining and processing
      • Abstract
      • 20.1 Introduction
      • 20.2 Iron ore mining and processing
      • 20.3 Application of LCA to iron ore mining and processing
      • 20.4 Using LCA to reduce energy and GHG impacts
      • 20.5 Conclusions
      • 20.6 Sources of further information and advice
  • Index
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