Nano Adsorbent Technology for Arsenic Removal from Underground Drinking Water

  • ID: 3150125
  • Report
  • Region: Global
  • 200 Pages
  • Politic India
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The world is facing the issue of availability of fresh water. It is turning into critical resource which if not addressed properly will have greater consequences for humanity. A large geographical area of the world is facing problems of water supplies and quality of water remains a challenge for all developed and developing nations.

In the last few decades, the consequences of population growth, industrialization and urbanization, and the associated consumerist culture have interfered with the natural hydrological cycle of rainfall, soil moisture, groundwater, surface water and storage of all sizes. This has led to overuse, abuse and pollution of our vital water resources and has disturbed the quality and the natural cleansing capacity of water.

The sources and causes of groundwater contamination are numerous. The wide range of contamination sources is one of many factors contributing to the complexity of a groundwater quality assessment. Natural contamination of water resources mainly results from normal geological phenomena such as ore formation

Mining is one of the most important sources of heavy metals in the environment. Mining milling operations and disposal of tailings (the finely-ground remains of milled ores) in addition to smelting and metal refining provide significant sources of pollution. Unchecked mining can cause water and soil contamination and other environmental problems (e.g., forest degradation and air pollution). Groundwater contamination is one of the major environmental concerns at ores mining sites.

As the source of arsenic is the Himalayan mountain and the Tibet Plateau, the flood plains of all the rivers that originated from those sources are expected to be arsenic contaminated. Therefore, in the present study an attempt has been made to gain an understanding of the Arsenic (As) contamination status and the health risk of the people by investigating the water and sediment chemistry as well as the urine and hair of the people who are drinkingarsenic contaminated water. Ground water sample was obtained from mining areas of Bihar-Jharkhand and the Brahmaputra alluvial basin of West Bengal and Assam Arsenicosis is not confined to Bihar, West Bengal and Bangladesh but several other countries like Taiwan, Thailand, Inner Mongolia (China), Pakistan, Japan, Sweden, UK, USA, Canada,Chekoslovakia, Chile and many other countries as well.

In the present study, surveys have been conducted at various locations in the above areas to understand the magnitude of contamination. Drinking water sample was analyzed for the elevated arsenic content. The arsenic concentration ranged from 0.30 mg/Kg to 1.48 mg/Kg.
To know the present arsenic body burden to population, biological samples were collected and analyzed from the arsenic affected villages.
Water treatment and development of an effective arsenic removal technology were also main objectives of the study. The experiments carried out during this study successfully addressed the removal of both arsenate and arsenite using surface functionalized ultrafine iron oxide nano particles. It was found that surface functionalized ultrafine iron oxide nano particles (10 nm) can absolutely remove arsenic from arsenic contaminated water. The efficiency of arsenic removal has been drastically improved by considering nano particles of size. The mechanism for adsorption was identified through electron microscopic and spectroscopic studies
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Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1 Water quality and contamination.
1.2 Occurrence and distribution of Arsenic in the environment
1.3 Arsenic toxicity
1.4 Heavy metals in the environment
1.5 Chemistry of Arsenic and other trace metals
1.6 Mobilization and enrichment of Arsenic in groundwater
1.7 Background information and research significance
1.8 Statement of problem
1.9 Objectives of research

Chapter 2: Literature review
2.1. World scenario of Arsenic poisoning
2.2. Arsenic and heavy metals in Soils and Sediments
2.3. Heavy metals in waters
2.4 Present groundwater arsenic contamination status in India
2.5 Groundwater arsenic contamination incidences round the world
2.8 Absorption, distribution and excretion of arsenic in human
2.9 Arsenic exposure and health effects
2.10 Treatment technologies for arsenic removal
2.10.1 Adsorption theory Mechanism of adsorption Kinetics of adsorption
2.10.2 Iron based adsorbents for arsenic removal from water 30-31
2.10.3 Nano scale iron based sorbents for Arsenic removal from water 31-34
2.10.4 Effect of water quality parameters on arsenic removal 34-37

Chapter 3: Chronic Arsenic poisoning: impairment, disability and handicap.

Chapter 4: Materials and methods
4.1 The study area
4.1.1 Topographical and morphological characteristics of study Area
4.1.2 Climate
4.1.3 Geological setting
4.1.4 Hydrogeology Shallow aquifer Deeper aquifer
4.1.5 Demography
4.1.6 Socio- economic condition
4.2 Sample collection and preservation
4.2.1 Water and sediment sample
4.2.2 Hair sample
4.2.3 Urine sample
4.3 Chemical reagents and SRM used
4.4 Digestion of above samples
4.5 Analytical procedures and approached methodologies used
4.5.1 Instrumentation Flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-HG-AAS) Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP- OES) Inductively coupled plasma- Mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) UV-Visible spectroscopic analysis Scanning electron microscopy- energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis
4.6 Sample analysis
4.7 Arsenic removal experiment
4.7.1 Preparation of surface functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles
4.7.2 Characterization of the adsorbents Transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis
4.7.3 Batch experiment
4.7.4 Kinetics
4.7.5 Entrapment study

Results and discussion:

Chapter 5: Arsenic in the groundwater at different locations of the study area
5.1 Variation of arsenic concentration in ground water drinking source
5.2 Characterization of tubewell sediments
5.2.1 SEM-EDX analysis of sediments X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) study
5.2.3 Arsenic in biological samples Arsenic in urine Arsenic in hair
5.3 Discussion
5.4 Conclusion

Chapter 6: Removal of arsenic from aqueous solution using ultrafine iron oxide nanoparticles
6.1 Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) studies
6.2 Batch experiment studies
6.2.1 Equilibrium time
6.2.2 Effect of initial concentration on arsenic removal efficiency
6.2.3 Effect of adsorbent dosage and contact time 106-109 Effect of pH on arsenic adsorption 109-113
6.3 Entrapment study 113-115
6.4 Arsenic removal mechanism 115-118
6.5 Adsorption isotherms 118-120
6.6 Sorption kinetics 120
6.6.1 The pseudo first- order equation 120-121
6.6.2 The pseudo second- order equation 121-123
6.7 FTIR study in arsenic adsorption 124
6..8 Conclusions and Future Scope 125

Chapter 7: Application of Arsenic removal from ground water using nanomaterial technology

List of tables

Chapter Table Page
4 .1Optimum parameters for Arsenic determination by FI- HG- AAS system
4.2 Analysis of standard reference material (SRM) by FI- HG- AAS system
5.1 Blockwise distribution of Arsenic concentration range (µg/L) in the collected groundwater samples
5.4 Distribution of Arsenic concentration range (µg/L) in the collected groundwater samples
5.3 Summary of present groundwater Arsenic contamination
5.4 Comparison of Arsenic concentration in groundwater Arsenic affected sample areas
5.5 Comparison of Iron concentrations in tube-wells of Arsenic
5.6 Arsenic concentration (mg/kg) in the borehole sediment samples at different depths
5.7 Concentration (mg/kg) of heavy metals in borehole sediment samples at different depths
5.8 Parametric presentation of Arsenic and other heavy metals (mg/kg) in borehole sediments
5.9 Statistical presentation of As/ Fe ratio in borehole sediments
5.10 Elemental analysis ( wt %) of borehole sediment samples using Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) 80
5.11 Statistical presentation of Arsenic in urine & hair samples
5.12 Average Arsenic concentration in urine & hair of Arsenic exposed population
5.13 Urinary Arsenic concentration (µg/L) of adult and child, exposed to same Arsenic concentration in drinking water in the same family
5.14 Arsenic concentration in drinking water used by the target population before and after awareness approach
6.1 Batch experiment data for As (III) removal using surface functionalized Fe2O3 nanoparticles
6.2 Batch experiment data for As (V) removal using surface functionalized Fe2O3 nanoparticles
6.3 Batch experiment data for As (III) removal using surface functionalized Fe2O3 nano particles at different adsorbent dose
6.4 Batch experiment data for As (V) removal using surface - functionalized Fe2O3 nano particles at different adsorbent dose
6.5 Batch experiment data for remaining As (III) in solution at different pH ( adsorbent dose = 0.005 g / 50 ml)
6.6 Batch experiment data for remaining As (V) in solution at different pH ( adsorbent dose = 0.005 g / 50 ml)
6.7 Batch experiment data for remaining As (III) in solution at different pH ( adsorbent dose = 0.05 g / 50 ml)
6.8 Batch experiment data for remaining As (V) in solution at different pH ( adsorbent dose = 0.05 g / 50 ml)
6.9 Pseudo first order rate constants, pseudo second order rate constants and RL values for As (III) adsorption on surface functionalized Fe2O3 nanoparticles at different initial concentrations
7 .1 A summary of general ground water analysis data
7.2 Heavy metal concentration (µg/L) in groundwater
7.3 Heavy metal concentrations (µg/L) in Majuli groundwater as a function of adsorbent concentration ( initial) As concentration
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