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Global Neutron Calculation

  • ID: 3167374
  • Book
  • April 2015
  • Region: Global
  • Bentham Science Publishers Ltd
Global Neutron Calculations provides assessment guidelines for nuclear reactors in a step-by-step manner. The book introduces readers to principal physical ideas, the fundamentals of nuclear reactors including the theory of self-sustaining chain reactions and the associated physical and mathematical calculations. The required theory, the mathematical appparatus and, the applied methods are comprehensively explained in the first half of the book followed by details about the applications of the theory and methods.

Readers will gain essential information about reactor control and surveillance, instrumentation and control, technology, fuel management, core design and the differences in reactor technologies.

Global Neutron Calculations demystifies technical and mathematical knowledge about reactor design, operation, safety and analysis for engineers learning about one of mankind’s most controversial means of power generation.
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Preface

Foreword

Credits

CHAPTER 1. Reactor Calculations
1. Self-sustaining chain reaction
2. Reactor physics models
3. Applications of reactor codes
4. Validation and veri?cation
5. Regulation questions
6. Surveillance of nuclear reactors

CHAPTER 2. Foundation of Core Calculations
1. Nuclear physics of fission
2. Neutron field in a nuclear reactor
3. Integral transport equation
4. Adjoint function

CHAPTER 3. Solutions of the Transport Equations
1. Green’s function
2. Case method
3. Perturbation theory, variational methods, response matrix
4. The heat side of the problem

CHAPTER 4. Approximate Solutions
1. Asymptotic theory
2. Energy groups
3. Pn method
4. Sn method   
5. Collision probability method
6. Randomness in the neutron field
7. Monte Carlo method

CHAPTER 5. Calculational Model
1. Cell calculation
2. Assembly calculation
3. Full core calculation
4. Reflector calculation
5. Burnup calculations

CHAPTER 6. Neutron Diffusion
1. Derivation of the diffusion equation
2. Mathematical properties of the diffusion equation
3. Derivation and limitations
4. One group diffusion theory
5. Few group diffusion theory
6. Response matrices in diffusion theory
7. Time dependence in diffusion theory

CHAPTER 7. Neutron Spectrum
1. Fast neutrons
2. Slowing down
3. Resonance region
4. Thermalization
5. Fermi age
6. Validation and veri?cation

CHAPTER 8. Numerical Methods
1. Finite difference
2. Finite elements
3. Nodal methods
4. Thermal hydraulics

CHAPTER 9. Kinetics
1. Reactor kinetics
2. Approximate solution of the time dependent DE
3. Reactivity measurement

CHAPTER 10. In-Core Measurements
1. The goal of core surveillance
2. Measured fields
3. Measurement techniques
4. Core monitoring
5. Measurement and safety
6. Core monitoring in Generation III reactors
7. Core surveillance at VVER-440 reactors: an example

CHAPTER 11. Core Design Methods
1. Power distribution limits
2. Calculational model and reactor operation
3. Core optimization
4. Equilibrium fuel cycle
5. Reactivity coef?cients and feedbacks
6. Regulation of the reactor
7. Safety issues

CHAPTER 12. Nuclear Reactors
1. Nuclear reactors for electricity production
2. Nuclear power plant types and generations
3. Technology of nuclear power stations with PWR technology
4. Safety - defense in depth principle for Generation III plants

CHAPTER 13. Acronyms

APPENDIX A. Mathematics Fundamentals
1. General
2. Theorems applied in the text
3. Special functions

APPENDIX B. Some Thermal Hydraulics Codes
1. System codes
2. CFD codes

APPENDIX C. Statistical Physics in Noise Analysis

APPENDIX D. A Simple Reactor Model

APPENDIX E. Mathematical Properties of Operators
1. Eigenvalue problem
2. Applications

APPENDIX F. Symmetries of the Transport Operator
1. Boundary value problem
2. Symmetries
3. Symmetries of the Boltzmann transport equation
4. Symmetries and boundary values
5. Application to Response Matrices Bibliography

Names

Subjects

List of Figures

1.1 Fission process (source: Encyclopedia of Science, internet)
2.1 The nuclear binding energy per nucleon
2.2 Moving on the chart of nuclei I.
2.3 Moving on the chart of nuclei II.
2.4 sf25 and sf28 neutron induced fission cross-sections
2.5 The distribution of fragments for neutron induced fission process
3.1 Fourier transforms at the boundary of a square
3.2 Fourier transforms along half-boundaries of a square
3.3 Walsh functions at the boundary of a square
3.4 Boiling Crisis [27] [p. 26]
4.1 Model boundary condition (square)
5.1 Core Re?ector Boundary (PWR)
6.1 The fundamental mode (blue line) and the transient (red)
7.1 Slowing down by elastic collisions in LCS and CMS
7.2 Energy dependence of ?l, l =1, . . . , 4 of deuterium
7.3 Placzek transients for four nuclei
7.4 Energy dependence of the ?ux and the total XS
8.1 Coordinates in a triangular element
8.2 Coordinates where the solution is determined in a triangular element
8.3 Cell and face numbering in the square lattice
9.1 The curve horizonthal axis: , vertical axis:
10.1 Smoothly varying fast flux in a homogeneous region
10.2 A PWR core V
10.3 Thermocouple (source:Wikipedia)
10.4 Rhodium detector decay scheme
10.5 SPND detector string
10.6 Thermal hydraulics analysis of an assembly (translated from Ref. [115])
10.7 Interrelationship between a safety limit, a safety system setting and an operational limit.
10.8 Core monitoring systems of the EPR [119]
10.9 Radial core positions of the AMS irradiation tubes and the SPNDs EPR [119]
10.10 Positions of the AES-2006 core equipped with detectors
10.11 Scheme of an uncompensated SPN detector
10.12 Geometry and material data for the SPND components
10.13 Core positions furnished with SPN detectors
10.14 Core positions furnished with assembly outlet thermocouples
10.15 Scheme of the present VERONA core monitoring system
10.16 Massive in-core measurement degradation event shown on the core map
10.17 Main display format of the VERONA system
11.1 Equilibrium fuel cycle
11.2 Orbits of an autonomous system-attracting fixed point, dissipative orbit, conservative orbit
11.3 SCWR stability model
12.1 Operating scheme of the two most widely used light-water cooled reactor type [169]
12.2 The general scheme of the nuclear fuel cycle ( [170])
12.3 Main steps in the nuclear fuel fabrication process
12.4 The four generations of nuclear power reactors
12.5 Operation scheme of a pressurized water reactor ( [172])
12.6 Scheme of the primary circuit of a large PWR [129]
12.7 Reactor pressure vessel of a large PWR ( [129] )
12.8 Steam generator of a large PWR ( [173])
12.9 Turbine of a large PWR unit ( [174])
12.10 The cooling system of the Neckarwestheim NPP (Germany)( [175] )
12.11 Most important buildings of an EPR plant ( [176])
12.12 Comparison of selected features of currently operating reactors with the features of EPR ( [181])
12.13 Scheme of the EPR "core catcher" ( [181])
12.14 Cooling of the external surface of the vessel by ?ooding the reactor cavity ( [182])
12.15 Scheme of the passive containment during a hypothetical accident situation ( [182])

List of Tables

2.1 Distribution of fission energy
2.2 Characteristics of the neutron distributions
6.1 Symmetry components of partial current moments
7.1 Moderating properties of some nuclei
8.1 Angular ?ux and boundary net currents in cell No. i
9.1 Delayed neutron group decay constants ?iand abundances ai
9.2 Doubling time vs. reactivity
10.1 EPR core surveillance system
10.2 AP 1000 core surveillance system
10.3 APR-1400 core surveillance system
10.4 AES-2006 core monitoring system
10.5 Main parameters of the Skoda SPN detectors
11.1 Some long-life ?ssion products
12.1 The five levels of defense in depth
F.1 Representation of invariant solution in one dimension [200]
F.2 Components of the Direct Product Representations in the C4v Group
F.3 Basis Functions of the Irreducible Subspaces for Space and Angle Dependent Components in the C4vGroup
F.4 Character Table of the Group C4v
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