Film Processing Advances

  • ID: 3260055
  • Book
  • Region: Global
  • 400 pages
  • Carl Hanser Verlag GmbH & Co. KG
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This volume deals with manufacturing processes for preparing very thin polymer products.

Many professionals working on polymer films have requested that a newer version of Film Processing be published that includes more recent technologies and addresses the latest literature. Film Processing Advances provides a timely response to these requests. This edition is still a technically oriented book to be used by film processing professionals, graduate students, and researchers and it covers recent technologies of film extrusion, extruder screw design, die design, film structure, film temperature, crystallization dynamics, and film properties. Furthermore, Film Processing Advances focuses on multilayered films and recent developments relating to high performance films. The chapters in this edition are all essentially new and were designed to complement the materials found in Film Processing, which remains a relevant and important information resource.
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1 Extruder and Screw Design for Film Processing
Mark A. Spalding and Gregory A. Campbell
1.1 The Extrusion Process
1.2 Rate Calculation
1.3 Gels
1.4 Troubleshooting Extrusion Processes
1.4.1 Improper Shutdown of Processing Equipment
1.4.2 Gel Showers in a Cast Film Process
1.4.3 Unmixed Gels
1.4.4 Carbon Specks in a Film Product
1.4.5 Rate Limitation Due to a Worn Screw

2 Kinematics, Dynamics, Crystallization, and Thermal Characteristics and Their Relationship to Physical Properties of Blown Film
2.1 Abstract
2.2 Introduction
2.3 Real-Time Crystallization of the Blown Film Process
2.4 Experiments
2.5 Process Data Analysis
2.6 SALS Image Analysis
2.7 Nucleation with High-Density Polyethylene
2.8 Experiments
2.9 Results
2.10 Temperature Measurement and Heat Transfer from the Blown Film Bubble
2.11 Measuring Film Emissivity and Film Thickness
2.12 Film Average Bulk Temperature and Surface Temperature
2.13 Experimental Evaluation of the Bubble Heat Transfer Coefficient
2.15 Correlating of MD and TD Properties of Blown Film

3 Multilayer Die Design and Film Structures
Karen Xiao and Martin Zatloukal
3.1 Background
3.1.1 Materials
3.1.2 Film Structures
3.1.3 Equipment Producers
3.2 Basic Coextrusion Film Die Types
3.2.1 Manufacturing Method
3.2.2 Cast Die Types
3.2.3 Blown Film Die Types
3.3 Interfacial Instabilities
3.3.1 Merging Area, Wave Type of Interfacial Instabilities, and the TNSD Sign Stability Criterion The Effect of Die Design on the Wave Type of Interfacial Instabilities The Role of Extensional Viscosities
3.3.2 Die Exit Region, Zigzag Interfacial Instabilities, and the Role of Polymer Processing Aids
3.3.3 Development of Interfacial Instabilities in Cast Film and Film Blowing of LDPEs
3.4 Flow Analysis for Flat Spiral Die

4 Die Flow Analysis and Mathematical Modeling of Film Blowing
J. Vlachopoulos and V. Sidiropoulos
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Die Flow Analysis
4.3 Computer-Aided Die Design
4.4 Modeling of Bubble Forming
4.5 Effect of Viscoelasticity
4.6 Modeling of Bubble Cooling
4.7 Bubble Collapsing
4.8 Critique on Flow Analysis and Bubble Modeling
4.9 Concluding Remarks

5 T-die Film Casting
Toshitaka Kanai
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Film Casting Process
5.3 Theoretical Analysis of Film Deformation under a Steady State
5.4 Deformation Behavior of T-die Casting
5.5 Draw Resonance
5.6 Film Breakage
5.7 Necking Phenomenon
5.8 Surface Roughness Caused by Shark Skin and Melt Fracture
5.9 Film Physical Properties
5.9.1 Influence of Process Conditions
5.9.2 Influence of Polymer Design Branching and Properties of LLDPE Impact Strength Heat Seal Temperature Blocking and Slippage Transparency Summary of Film Physical Properties
5.10 Bleeding of Additives in a Polypropylene Film

6 An Overview of Molten Polymer Drawing Instabilities
Jean-Francois Agassant and Yves Demay
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Experiments
6.3 Modeling Strategy: Constant Width Cast Film Process
6.4 Cast Film Process
6.4.1 Influence of Cooling
6.4.2 Influence of the Neck-In Phenomenon
6.4.3 Validity of the Membrane Model: 2-D Transverse Simulation
6.4.4 Influence of Rheology
6.5 Fiber Spinning
6.6 Film Blowing
6.7 Conclusions

7 Biaxial Oriented Film Technology
J. Breil
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Biaxial Oriented Film Lines
7.2.1 Sequential Film Lines Extrusion Casting Machine Machine Direction Orienter (MDO) Transverse Direction Orienter (TDO) Pull Roll Stand Winder
7.2.2 Simultaneous Stretching Lines
7.3 Process Control
7.4 Development Environment for Biaxial Oriented Films
7.5 Market for Biaxial Oriented Films

8 Biaxially Oriented Tentering Film
Toshitaka Kanai 231
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Tentering Process
8.3 Biaxially Oriented Tentering Machine
8.4 Theoretical and Experimental Analyses and Polymer Design for Biaxially Oriented Film
8.4.1 Cooling Process Analysis
8.4.2 Stretching Process Analysis
8.5 Visualization of Stretching Process
8.6 Film Physical Properties of Biaxially Oriented Film
8.7 Surface Roughness Control of Stretched Film

9 Structure Development in Uniaxial and Biaxial Film Stretching
T. Kikutani and W. Takarada
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Equipment for In Situ Measurement of Optical Retardation
9.3 In Situ Measurement during Batch-Type Film Stretching Experiments
9.3.1 Variation of In-Plane Birefringence during Uniaxial Stretching and Relaxation Processes
9.3.2 Three-Dimensional Analysis of Birefringence Development in Film Stretching Uniaxial Elongation Planar Elongation Simultaneous Biaxial Elongation
9.3.3 Stress versus Birefringence Behavior
9.4 Analysis of Sequential Biaxial Elongation
9.4.1 Theoretical Prediction for Sequential Biaxial Elongation
9.4.2 Off-Line Analysis of Film Samples from the Sequential Biaxial Stretching Process Birefringence WAXD Analysis
9.5 Intrinsic Birefringence for Various Orientation Modes
9.6 Concluding Remarks

10 Double Bubble Tubular Film Extrusion
Toshitaka Kanai
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Double Bubble Tubular Machine
10.3 Theoretical Analysis of Double Bubble Tubular Film Process
10.3.1 Theoretical Analysis of Preheating Process and Stretching Process
10.3.2 Analysis of Stretching Stress
10.4 Bubble Deformation Behavior [16]
10.5 Film Properties
10.6 Comparison of Double Bubble Tubular Film (DBTF) and Laboratory Tenter Stretched Film (LTSF) [17]
10.6.1 Bubble Deformation Behavior and Stretching Stress
10.6.2 Comparison of LLDPE Film Properties of DBTF and LTSF
10.7 Material Design of Polyolefin for Double Bubble Tubular Film
10.7.1 Polyethylene [18]
10.7.2 Polypropylene [19]
10.8 Thickness Uniformity
10.9 High Performance Film Produced by Blend and Multilayer Stretching Process
10.10 Scale-Up Rule
10.11 Three Different Stretching Processes
10.12 Conclusions

11 Double Bubble Tubular Film Process and Its Application
Masao Takashige 315
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Physical Properties of Biaxial Oriented PA6 Film for Simultaneous Stretching and Sequential Processing
11.2.1 Stretching Process (Three Technical Methods)
11.2.2 Film Physical Properties Impact Strength Tensile Properties Shrinkage Properties in Hot Water (Shrinkage Patterns) Stress-Strain Curve Pattern
11.2.3 Wide-Angle X-ray Diffraction Pattern
11.2.4 Polarized Fluorescence
11.3 Easy-Tear Film of Biaxial Oriented PA6/MXD6 Blend by Double Bubble Tubular Film Process
11.3.1 Equipment and Materials
11.3.2 Blend Ratio (Dry Blending) Stretchability Physical Properties Easy-Tearing Properties Observation with TEM Observation with SALS Mechanism of Developed Property Thickness Uniformity
11.3.3 Kneading Conditions (Premixing) (Melting Point of MXD6) Physical Properties Structure Analysis
11.4 Summary

12 Highly Transparent Polypropylene Sheets
Akira Funaki 349
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Influence of Screw Geometry on External Haze of Melted Web
12.2.1 Preliminary Extrusion Tests Using Typical and Simple Geometry Screw 351
12.2.2 Optimization of Screw Geometry
12.3 Influence of Shear Stress in Die on Internal Haze
12.4 Analysis of Contributing Factors to Production of Highly Transparent PP Extrusion Sheets
12.4.1 Influence of Isotacticity on Transparency
12.4.2 Influence of Molecular Weight Distribution on Transparency
12.4.3 Influence of Addition of Metallocene Linear Low Density Polyethylene on Transparency
12.5 Conclusion

Author Index

Subject Index
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Toshitaka Kanai is Principal Researcher at the Performance Materials Laboratories of Idemitsu Kosan Co., where he has worked since 1976. He is President of the Japan Society of Polymer Processing, International Representative of the Polymer Processing Society, and a Visiting Professor at Kanazawa University.

Gregory A. Campbell is Professor Emeritus at Clarkson University, NY. He formerly directed a research group at GM Research and managed polymer fabrication at Mobil Chemical Research.
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