Recycled Polymers: Chemistry and Processing, Volume 1

  • ID: 3288680
  • Book
  • 340 pages
  • Smithers Information Ltd
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The increasing consumption of different kinds of polymer based materials results in huge amount of waste materials. Once the polymers have fulfilled the function for which they have been manufactured, they are disposed of in land?lls in large amounts each year, which is incompatible with current environmental goals. The disposal of polymer based plastics such as incineration and landfill results in environmental pollution and land occupation.

These current levels of polymer disposal are not sustainable and polymer recycling, which is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce the negative impacts, receives increasing attention. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of polymer wastes, as well as the negative impacts of disposal. Using recycled polymer wastes to replace virgin materials in some applications, such as non-food packaging and automotive components, can effectively decrease the demand of the amount of import oil and conserve raw materials. Further it can also lead to the energy saving and creating new jobs. Considering all the positive impacts of polymer recycling on environment, economy and society, considerable attention is being given to recover materials from polymer wastes.

This book is ideal for all those who are interested in recycling of post-consumer polymer waste. It is the outcome of untiring efforts of the researchers with extensive experience in the field of recycled polymers. The book enables the reader to gain a thorough understanding of the chemistry and processing of recycled polymers and also provides an instrumental resource for those already working in this field.

Some of the main features are:

Highlights the chemistry of recycled polymers and compares with traditional polymers
Discusses the processing of different kinds of recycled polymers
Highlights new frontiers in the different processing techniques
Evaluates the performance of recycled polymers
Focus on recyclability and up-to date progress on recycled polymers
Present state of polymer recycling
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1 State-of-the-Art of Thermomechano-chemical Rubber Regeneration
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Rubber Structure: Formulation and Vulcanisation
1.3 Regeneration: Goal and Methods
1.3.1 Biotechnological Methods
1.3.2 Classical Methods Wet Methods Wet Methods using Supercritical Fluids Thermomechanical Methods Thermomechano-chemical Methods Methods using Radiation Methods using Ultrasound Methods using Microwaves
1.4 Regeneration Evaluation
1.5 Composition and Homogeneity of Rubber Powders
1.5.1 Thermomechanical Regeneration Processes
1.6 Mechano-chemical Regeneration Processes
1.7 Proposed Regeneration Mechanisms
1.8 Conclusion and Future Work

2 The Recycling of Polymers as Feedstock in Coke Manufacture and Ironmaking
2.1 Introduction
2.2 The Polymer-waste-feedstock Chain
2.2.1 Plastic Waste Management
2.3 Saving Plastic Materials and Energy
2.3.1 Mechanical Recycling
2.3.2 Energy Recovery
2.3.3 Feedstock Recycling
2.4 Feedstock Recycling of Plastic Wastes in Cokemaking
2.4.1 Metallurgical Coke for the Blast Furnace
2.4.2 Interactions between Plastic Wastes and Coal during Co-carbonisation
2.4.3 Effect of Plastic Wastes on the Generation of Coking Pressure
2.4.4 Effect of Plastic Wastes on the Coke Quality
2.4.5 Current Status in Industrial Cokemaking
2.5 Feedstock Recycling of Plastic Wastes in Ironmaking
2.6 Environmental Benefits in Greenhouse Gas Emissions
3 Preparation of Coating Powder from Postconsumer Polyethylene Terephthalate Packaging
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Main Components of Powdered Paints
3.2.1 Thermoplastic Resins
3.2.2 Thermosetting Resins
3.2.3 Pigments
3.2.4 Curing Agents
3.2.5 Other Additives
3.3 Steps in the Production of Powdered Paints
3.3.1 Premixture
3.3.2 Dispersion
3.3.3 Cooling
3.3.4 Micronisation
3.4 Methods to Apply Powdered Paints
3.4.1 Simple Systems Simple Fluidised Beds Flame Spray Systems
3.4.2 Electrostatic Systems Electrostatic Fluidised Beds Electrostatic Spraying
3.4.3 Corona Electrostatic Spray Guns
3.4.4 Triboelectric Spray Guns
3.5 Degradation of Polyethylene Terephthalate to obtain Paints
3.6 Methods for the Hydrolysis Studied
3.6.1 Polyethylene Terephthalate Degradation
3.6.2 Determination of Viscosity
3.6.3 Melt Flow Index Measurement
3.6.4 Differential Scanning Calorimetry
3.6.5 Particle Size Profile
3.6.6 Size Exclusion Chromatography
3.6.7 Production of the Powdered Varnishes Formulation Mixing Dispersion of the Components by Extrusion Micronisation
3.6.8 Obtaining the Test Panels – Application of the Varnishes Application Process Melting the Varnish Cooling of the Panels
3.6.9 Characterisation of the Film Determination of Gloss Impact Resistance Determination of Film Hardness (Scratch Resistance) Determination of Adherence Determination of the Cupping Index
3.7 Results for the Hydrolysis Studies
3.7.1 Degradation and Characterisation of the Polyethylene Terephthalate Analysis by Viscometry Differential Scanning Calorimetry Size Exclusion Chromatography
3.7.2 Formulation of the Varnishes
3.7.3 Particle Size Profile
3.7.4 Application and Characterisation of the Film Viscometry by Solution Intrinsic Viscosity by Melt Flow Index Size Exclusion Chromatography
3.7.5 Performance of the Varnishes Determination of Gloss Impact Resistance Cupping Index Hardness Adherence
3.8 Final Considerations

4 Effective Screw-disc Extrusion in the Processing of Recycled Polymers and its Composites
4.1 Principles of Disc and Screw-disc Extrusion
4.2 A Review of Screw and Screw-disc Extruder Construction
4.3 Movement of Polymer Particles in the Disc Zone of the Screw-disc Extruder
4.3.1 Effect of Multiple Screw-disc Extrusion on the Rheological Properties of Low-density Polyethylene
4.3.2 Research on the Properties of Polymer Mixtures Extruded in a Screw-disc Plasticising System Microscopic Studies of Mixtures Tensile Properties of Mixtures Processing Parameters of Mixtures
4.4 Experimental Verification of the Trajectory of a Plastic Particle in the Disc Zone
4.5 Wood-polymer Composites
4.5.1 Evaluation of the Stage of Composite Mixing
4.5.2 Extrusion of Mixtures Containing a 50% Wood Phase
4.6 Summary

5 Plastics Flotation
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Historical Development of Plastics Flotation
5.3 The Principle of Plastics Flotation
5.3.1 Gamma Flotation
5.3.2 Adsorption of Wetting Agents
5.3.3 Surface Treatment
5.4 Flotation Modulated by Frothers
5.4.1 Flotation Behaviour
5.4.2 Mechanism of Action of Frothers
5.4.3 Flotability of Plastics Modulated by Frothers
5.5 Flotation Modulated by Wetting Agents
5.5.1 Flotation Behaviour
5.5.2 Mechanism of Action of Wetting Agents Interfacial Interactions Adsorption Model of Wetting Agents onto a Plastic Surface Wetting Ability, Adsorption Intensity and Desorption
5.6 Effects of Additives on the Flotability of Plastics
5.6.1 The Effects of Additives on the Surface of Polyvinyl Chloride Plastics Surfaces of Plastic Particles in a Flotation System The Effects of Additives on the Surface Free Energy of a Mixed Surface Interactions between the Mixed Surface and Water Interactions between the Mixed Surface and a Bubble
5.6.2 The Natural Flotability of Polyvinyl Chloride Plastics
5.7 Flotation Separation of Plastic Mixtures
5.7.1 Flotation Separation of Waste Plastics without Reagents
5.7.2 Flotation Separation of Waste Plastics using Frothers
5.7.3 Flotation Separation of Waste Plastics using Wetting Agents

6 Recycling of Natural Rubber-based Waste Tyres - A Green Environment for the Future
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Recycling of Rubber
6.3 Scrap Tyre or Waste Tyre
6.3.1 Types of Scrap Rubber Recycling Methods
6.3.2 Grinding of Rubber Material
6.4 Recycling Technologies
6.4.1 Ambient Mechanical Grinding
6.4.2 Cryogenic Grinding
6.4.3 Microwave/Pyrolysis Reclaiming Microwave Reclaiming Pyrolysis Reclaiming
6.4.4 Burning Scrap Tyres for Energy
6.5 Proposed Reaction Mechanism of the Reclamation of Vulcanised Rubber
6.5.1 Classification of Reaction Mechanisms
6.5.2 Chain and/or Crosslink Scission using a Disulfide Reclaiming Agent
6.5.3 Main Chain Scission by a Reclaiming Agent Phenylhydrazine-iron (II) Chloride Crosslink Scission (Triphenylphosphine) Main Chain and Crosslink Scission (Thiols and Disulfides) Opening of Sulfur Crosslinks
6.6 Applications
6.6.1 Tyre-derived Fuel
6.6.2 Ground Rubber Applications
6.6.3 Civil Engineering Applications
6.7 Technical and Economic Barriers to Recycling Tyres
6.8 Conclusion

7 Magnetic Density Separation of Polymer Wastes
7.1 Polymers in Europe
7.1.1 Polyolefins Packaging Waste Car Waste
7.2 Magnetic Density Separation
7.2.1 The Principle of Magnetic Density Separation
7.2.2 Magnetic Density Separation Layout
7.2.3 Factors affecting the Magnetic Density Separation Process
7.3 Polyolefin Recycling
7.4 Quality of Magnetic Density Separation Products
7.4.1 Rheological Property
7.4.2 Mechanical Properties
7.5 Modelling of Magnetic Density Separation
7.5.1 Turbulence
7.5.2 Magnetic Field Errors
7.5.3 Size of the Flakes
7.5.4 Combined effect of all Factors

8 Recycling of Postconsumer Engineering Thermoplastics: Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and Polycarbonate
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene
8.2.1 Effect of Impurities
8.2.2 Effect of Thermal Processing
8.2.3 Improving Properties of Recycled Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene
8.3 Polycarbonate
8.3.1 Effect of Impurities
8.3.2 Effect of Thermal Processing
8.3.3 Improving the Properties of Recycled Polycarbonate Use of Virgin Materials and Impact Modifiers . Use of Reinforcing Materials Use of Nanoclays
8.4 Flammability Properties of Recycled Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and Polycarbonate
8.5 Conclusions
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