Tyre Retreading

  • ID: 3288686
  • Book
  • 238 pages
  • Smithers Information Ltd
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This book provides details of the different elastomers – including reclaim rubber and crumb rubbers – utilised in the rubber compounds used in the manufacture of different types of tyre retreading. There are discussions about reinforcing fillers and other compounding ingredients, their efficacy, the use of bonding agents, and their relevance to the tyre retreading process.

Precise guidelines for the practical compounding of different categories of rubber compounds used to make retread can be drawn from the book. A practical approach is also taken to describe the manufacturing technology used in tyre retreading.

The book then moves on to describe the innovations in green retreading technology, abrasion and flex fatigue deterioration of tyre tread.

State-of-the-art methods for the inspection and testing of old tyres before rubberisation and after retreading are examined in detail, as well as techniques for the testing of basic raw materials and process testing of prepared rubber compounds.

Nanotechnology (potentially the bringer of a revolution in the field of tyre retreading) and the development of the run flat tyre are described in some depth in this book.

This concise book is intended to be a practical guide to tyre retreading manufacture and a ready reference for students, researchers and academics.
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
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1 Rubbers, Compounding Ingredients and their Criterion in Tyre Retreading
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Elemental Criteria for the Selection of Rubbers for Tyre Retreading
1.3 Rubbers Used for Tyre Retreading
1.3.1 Natural Rubber
1.3.1.1 Properties of Natural Rubber
1.3.1.2 Derivatives of Natural Rubber
1.3.1.2.1 Superior Processing Natural Rubber
1.3.1.2.2 Epoxidised Natural Rubber
1.3.1.2.3 Chlorinated Rubber
1.3.1.2.4 Ingredients for Natural Rubber Compounding
1.3.1.2.5 Chemical Peptisers
1.3.1.2.6 Metal Oxides, Silicates and so on
1.3.1.2.7 Zinc Oxide
1.3.1.2.8 Process Aids
1.3.1.2.9 Antioxidants/Antidegradants
1.3.1.2.10 Tack Aids, Tackifiers
1.3.1.2.11 Solvents and Chemical Bonding Agents
1.3.1.2.12 Accelerators
1.4 Styrene-butadiene Rubber
1.4.1 Properties of Styrene-butadiene Rubber
1.4.2 Styrene-butadiene Rubber 1712 grade
1.4.3 High-styrene Resins
1.5 Polybutadiene Rubber
1.5.1 Effective Properties of Polybutadiene Rubber for Retread Applications
1.6 Polychloroprene Rubber
1.6.1 Properties of Polychloroprene Rubber
1.7 Ethylene Propylene Rubbers
1.8 Reclaim Rubber
1.8.1 Digester Process
1.8.2 Pan Process
1.8.3 Reclaimator Process
1.8.4 Crumb/Powdered Rubber
References

2 Processability, Characterisation and Properties of Tyre Retread Compounding Ingredients
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Processability
2.3 Requirement of Mechanical Properties
2.4 Perceptions of Reinforcement in Rubber Compounding
2.4.1 Reinforcing Carbon Blacks
2.5 Reinforcing Silica, Silicates and Carbonates for Tyre Retread
2.5.1 Specialty Ingredients for Tyre Tread
2.6 Dispersion Effect of Fillers in Rubber Mixes
2.7 Adhesion to Used/Worn-out Tyres
2.8 Properties of Tear and Abrasion Resistance
2.9 Resilience and Flexibility
2.10 Resistance to Oxygen, Ozone and Flexing
2.11 Resistance to Decay of Tyre Treads from Natural Causes
References

3 Manufacturing Technology for Tyre Retreading
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Retreading Methodology
3.2.1 Non-destructive Tyre Testing Systems
3.2.1.1 Shearography
3.2.1.2 Laser Shearography
3.2.1.3 X-ray Inspection
3.2.1.4 Holography
3.2.2 Manufacturing Process of Retreading
3.2.3 Formulation for Tyre Retreading Compounds
3.3 Essential Physical Properties in Designing Retread Rubber Compounds
3.3.1 Technology of Adhesion on Retreading
3.4 Steps for Manufacturing Retreading
3.4.1 Buffing
3.4.2 Casing Repair
3.4.3 Cementing
3.4.4 Building (Assembly)
3.4.5 Mould Curing of Retread (Hot Process)
3.4.6 Precure Retreading (Cold Curing Process)
3.4.7 Precured Retreading Process
3.4.8 Enveloping
3.4.9 Vulcanisation of Cold Cure Retreads
3.4.10 Final Inspection
3.4.11 Exterior Painting
3.5 Advantages and Disadvantages of Cold versus Hot Retreading
3.6 Total Tyre Retreading Logic
3.7 Cause and Effect Analysis for Tyre Retreading Process
References
4.1 Introduction and Historical Overview
4.2 Reinforcement of Rubber
4.3 Reinforcing Fillers
4.4 Factors Influencing Filler Reinforcement
4.4.1 Particle Surface Activity
4.4.2 Particle Size
4.4.3 Particle Surface Area
4.4.4 Particle Structure
4.5 Reinforcing Effects
4.5.1 Hydrodynamic Effect
4.5.2 Filler–Polymer Interaction
4.5.3 Polymer Network Contribution
4.5.4 Filler–Filler Interaction: Payne Effect
4.6 Black and Non-black Reinforcing Fillers
4.6.1 Carbon Black
4.6.2 Silica
4.6.3 Carbon Black versus Silica
4.6.4 Various Classes of Silicas
4.7 Silica Reinforcement
4.7.1 Aggregate Size of Silica
4.7.2 Specific Surface Area of Silica
4.7.3 Characterisation of Silica Surface
4.7.4 Surface Chemistry of Silica
4.7.5 Bound Rubber Model of Silica-filled Rubber
4.7.6 Use of Modified Solution Styrene-butadiene Rubber
4.8 Technical Difficulties in Using Silica
4.8.1 Surface Energy
4.8.2 Solubility
4.8.3 Structure of the Filler
4.9 Silane Chemistry
4.9.1 Types of Commonly used Coupling Agents
4.9.2 Silica–Silane Reaction
4.9.3 Alternative Coupling Agents
4.9.4 Kinetic Parameters of the Silanisation Reaction
4.9.5 Silanisation Acceleration
4.10 Green Tyre Technology: The State of the Art
4.10.1 Rolling Resistance
4.10.2 Remedy
References

5 Advances in Tyre Retreading and Scope of Run-Flat Tyres and Elastomer Nanocomposites
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Visual Inspection for External Damage
5.2.1 Bead Failure
5.2.2 Sidewall Failure
5.2.3 Sidewall Bulge
5.2.4 Sidewall Cut
5.2.5 Sidewall Discolouration
5.2.6 Ozone Cracking
5.2.7 Shoulder Damage
5.2.8 Crown Area Damage
5.2.9 Damage of Inner Liner
5.3 Non-destructive Evaluation
5.3.1 Radioactive Tracer Gas Technique
5.4 Safety, Green Technology, Recycling and Cost Saving in Tyre Retreading
5.5 Mechanism of Rubber Failure
5.6 Elastomeric Nanocomposites with Special Reference to Tyre Retreading
5.6.1 Nanofillers and Their Impact on Mechanical and Functional Properties of Tyres
5.7 Run-Flat Tyre
5.7.1 Self-sealing
5.7.2 Self-supporting
5.7.3 Auxiliary Supported Run-Flat System
5.7.4 Commercial Makers of Run-Flat Tyre
5.7.5 Performance Characteristics and Use of Run-Flat Tyres
5.8 Tyre Pressure Monitoring System
5.9 New-Generation Tyres
5.10 Summary
5.11 Acknowledgement
References

6 Testing and Quality Assurance for the Tyre Retreading Industry
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Chemical Analysis
6.2.1 Chemical Analysis: Definition, Significance and Procedure of Measurement
6.2.1.1 Specific Gravity: Definition, Significance and Measurement Procedure
6.2.1.2 Ash Content: Definition, Significance and Measurement Procedure
6.2.1.3 Heat Loss: Definition, Significance and Measurement Procedure
6.2.1.4 Melting Point: Definition, Significance and Measurement Procedure
6.2.1.5 Acidity: Definition, Significance and Measurement Procedure
6.2.1.6 Insolubility: Definition, Significance and Measurement Procedure
6.2.1.7 Oil Content: Definition, Significance and Measurement Procedure
6.2.1.8 Softening Point: Definition, Significance and Measurement Procedure
6.2.1.9 Acid Number: Definition, Significance and Measurement Procedure
6.2.1.10 Saponification Number: Definition, Significance and Measurement Procedure
6.2.1.11 Iodine Number: Definition, Significance and Measurement Procedure
6.2.1.12 Toluene Discolouration: Definition, Significance and Measurement Procedure
6.2.1.13 Sieve Residue: Definition, Significance and Measurement Procedure
6.2.1.14 Pour Density: Definition, Significance and Measurement Procedure
6.2.1.15 Iodine Adsorption: Definition, Significance and Measurement Procedure
6.2.1.16 Surface Area: Definition, Significance and Measurement Procedure
6.2.1.17 Oil Adsorption: Definition, Significance and Measurement Procedure
6.2.1.18 Pellet Hardness: Definition, Significance and Measurement Procedure
6.2.1.19 Tint Strength: Definition, Significance and Measurement Procedure
6.2.1.20 Organic Acids: Definition, Significance and Measurement Procedure
6.2.1.21 Nitrogen Content: Definition, Significance and Measurement Procedure
6.2.1.22 Assay of Accelerators: Definition, Significance and Measurement Procedure
6.2.1.23 Solvent Extractables: Definition, Significance and Measurement Procedure
6.2.1.24 pH: Definition, Significance and Measurement Procedure
6.2.1.25 Soaps: Definition, Significance and Measurement Procedure
6.2.1.26 Flash and Fire Point: Definition, Significance and Measurement Procedure
6.2.1.27 Pour Point: Definition, Significance and Measurement Procedure
6.2.1.28 Aniline Point: Definition, Significance and Measurement Procedure
6.2.1.29 Viscosity: Definition, Significance and Measurement Procedure
6.2.1.30 Clay-Gel Analysis: Definition, Significance and Measurement Procedure
6.2.2 Thermal Analysis
6.2.2.1 Applications
6.2.3 Spectroscopy
6.2.3.1 Applications
6.2.4 X-Ray Diffraction
6.2.4.1 Applications
6.2.5 Chromatography
6.2.5.1 Applications
6.3 Physical Testing
6.3.1 Preparation of Test Pieces
6.3.2 Mixing and Moulding
6.3.3 Cutting/Die out from Sheet
6.3.4 Test Pieces from Finished Products
6.3.5 Reasons for Physical Testing
6.3.5.1 Plasticity and Recovery Test
6.3.5.2 Mooney Viscosity, Stress Relaxation, Mooney Scorch
6.3.5.3 Extrudability
6.3.5.4 Vulcanising Characteristics
6.4 Testing of Rubber Products
6.4.1 Preparation and Conditioning of Test Pieces
6.4.2 Hardness
6.4.3 Tensile Stress and Strain Including Tear
6.4.4 Abrasion Resistance
6.4.5 Resilience
6.4.6 Heat Build-up
6.4.7 Fatigue Test
6.4.8 Ozone Resistance
6.4.9 Adhesion
References
Abbreviations
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